Efficacy of conventional immunosuppressive drugs in IBD
ABSTRACT The introduction and rapid diffusion of biological agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease had led us to believe that the old immunosuppressive drugs were destined to disappear. However, despite a decade of clinical experience in the use of biological agents, the old immunosuppressive drugs continue to play a pivotal role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Various factors may account for this change of view. Aim of the present review was to summarise key information currently available regarding the use of immunosuppressive drugs in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 20% of patients with ulcerative colitis have a chronic active disease often requiring several courses of systemic steroids in order to achieve remission, but followed by relapse of symptoms during steroid tapering or soon after their discontinuation. Although short term control of symptoms can be achieved with steroid treatment, this pattern of drug response, known as steroid-dependency, leads to important complications of the treatment, while a significant proportion of patients requires colectomy. To review the studies currently available specifically evaluating the management of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. The clinical and biological mechanisms of steroid-dependency are not well understood compared with those determining steroid-refractoriness. Very few evidence-based data are available concerning the management of patients with steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. The therapeutic role of aminosalicylates, thiopurines, methotrexate, infliximab, leukocyte apheresis and other drugs in the treatment of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis are evaluated. Outcomes of studies in steroid-refractory patients may not be applicable to steroid-dependency. Trials are needed to define the correct approaches and new strategies to ameliorate the therapy of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 10/2007; 26(6):779-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03334.x · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mast cells are well known as versatile cells capable of releasing and producing a variety of inflammatory mediators upon activation and are often found in close proximity of neurons. In addition, inflammation leads to local activation of neurons resulting in the release neuropeptides, which also play an important immune modulatory role by stimulation of immune cells. In intestinal disorders like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the number of mast cells is known to be much higher than in the normal intestine. Moreover, both these disorders are also reported to be associated with alterations in neuropeptide content and in neural innervation. Mutual association between mast cells and enteric nerves has been demonstrated to be increased in pathophysiological conditions and contribute to spreading and amplification of the response in IBD and IBS. In this review the focus lies on studies appointed to the direct interaction between mast cells and nerves in IBD, IBS, and animal models for these disorders so far.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 12/2007; 116(2):207-35. DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.06.008 · 7.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gastro-intestinal tract is well known for its largest neural network outside the central nervous system and for the most extensive immune system in the body. Research in neurogastroenterology implicates the involvement of both enteric nervous system and immune system in symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Since both disorders are associated with increased immune cell numbers, nerve growth and activation of both immune cells and nerves, we focus in this review on the involvement of immune cell-nerve interactions in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Firstly, the possible effects of enteric nerves, especially of the nonadrenergic and noncholinergic nerves, on the intestinal immune system and their possible role in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases are described. Secondly, the possible effects of immunological factors, from the innate (chemokines and Toll-like receptors) as well as the adaptive (cytokines and immunoglobulins) immune system, on gastro-intestinal nerves and its potential role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome are reviewed. Investigations of receptor-mediated and intracellular signal pathways in neuro-immune interactions might help to develop more effective therapeutic approaches for chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases.European Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 585(2-3):361-74. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.02.095 · 2.68 Impact Factor