Efficacy of conventional immunosuppressive drugs in IBD.

GI Unit, Department of Clinical Science, University of Rome La Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy.
Digestive and Liver Disease (Impact Factor: 3.16). 12/2004; 36(11):766-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.dld.2004.06.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The introduction and rapid diffusion of biological agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease had led us to believe that the old immunosuppressive drugs were destined to disappear. However, despite a decade of clinical experience in the use of biological agents, the old immunosuppressive drugs continue to play a pivotal role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Various factors may account for this change of view. Aim of the present review was to summarise key information currently available regarding the use of immunosuppressive drugs in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidences suggested an inverse association between the use of glucosamine supplements and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. In this study, the efficacy of glucosamine to attenuate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, a precancerous condition for CRC was evaluated. C57BL/6 mice were separated into three groups receiving glucosamine sulfate at concentrations of 0, 0.05 and 0.10% (w/w) of AIN-93G diet, respectively for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by supplying two cycles (5 days per cycle) of 2% DSS in the animals' drinking water. Glucosamine supplementation at the level of 0.10% of the diet (w/w) reduced colitis-associated symptoms as measured by disease activity index (DAI). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and NF-κB mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa was significantly lower in animals fed 0.10% glucosamine compared to those of the control group. Expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin was significantly higher in the 0.10% glucosamine-supplemented group compared to the other groups. Also, colonic protein expression of lipocalin 2, and serum concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and amyloid P component (SAP) were significantly reduced in the 0.10% glucosamine-supplemented group compared to the control group. These results suggest that glucosamine attenuates the colitis disease activity by suppressing NF-κB activation and related inflammatory responses.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mast cells are well known as versatile cells capable of releasing and producing a variety of inflammatory mediators upon activation and are often found in close proximity of neurons. In addition, inflammation leads to local activation of neurons resulting in the release neuropeptides, which also play an important immune modulatory role by stimulation of immune cells. In intestinal disorders like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the number of mast cells is known to be much higher than in the normal intestine. Moreover, both these disorders are also reported to be associated with alterations in neuropeptide content and in neural innervation. Mutual association between mast cells and enteric nerves has been demonstrated to be increased in pathophysiological conditions and contribute to spreading and amplification of the response in IBD and IBS. In this review the focus lies on studies appointed to the direct interaction between mast cells and nerves in IBD, IBS, and animal models for these disorders so far.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 12/2007; 116(2):207-35. · 7.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In ulcerative colitis (UC), reduction of inflammation may represent a key mechanism in UC therapy, and anti-inflammatory agents would be good candidates for preventing UC. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, is believed to have anti-inflammatory activities and has been shown to be potentially immune-modulatory. The aim of this study was to determine whether kaempferol alleviates the inflammatory responses of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were divided into six groups: a negative control group, a DSS control group, and DSS + 0.1% or 0.3% kaempferol pre- or post-fed groups. At the end of the experimental period, clinical and biochemical markers were evaluated. Plasma levels of NO and PGE(2) were significantly decreased in both the 0.3% kaempferol pre- and post-fed groups. The plasma LTB(4) level was profoundly decreased in all animals fed kaempferol. Colonic mucosa MPO activity was also suppressed in both the 0.3% kaempferol pre- or post-fed groups. TFF3 mRNA, a marker for goblet cell function, was up-regulated in kaempferol pre-fed animals. These results indicate that kaempferol is an effective anti-inflammatory agent that protects colonic mucosa from DSS-induced UC. Dietary kaempferol fed prior to colitis induction was more effective to suppress some of the colitis-associated markers.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 09/2011; 57(2):355-63. · 2.26 Impact Factor