Acute and continuation risperidone monotherapy in bipolar mania: a 3-week placebo-controlled trial followed by a 9-week double-blind trial of risperidone and haloperidol.
ABSTRACT In a randomized, double-blind trial, patients with acute bipolar mania received 1-6 mg/day of risperidone, 2-12 mg/day of haloperidol, or placebo for 3 weeks, followed by double-blind risperidone or haloperidol for 9 weeks. Of 438 patients, 154 were randomized to risperidone, 144 to haloperidol, and 140 to placebo. The mean+/-S.D. modal doses were 4.2+/-1.7 mg/day of risperidone and 8.0+/-3.6 mg/day of haloperidol during the initial 3-week phase and 4.1+/-1.8 and 7.4+/-3.7 mg/day during the 12-week period. At week 3, mean Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score reductions from baseline were significantly greater in patients receiving risperidone than placebo (p<0.001). Differences between risperidone and haloperidol on this efficacy measure were not significant. Further reductions in YMRS scores were seen in patients receiving risperidone or haloperidol during the subsequent 9 weeks. No unexpected adverse events were reported. Extrapyramidal disorder and hyperkinesias, the most commonly reported adverse events with antipsychotic use, occurred less frequently with risperidone than haloperidol. We conclude that risperidone monotherapy was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for bipolar mania and that efficacy was maintained over the long term.
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ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive deficits are associated with most psychotic disorders, but may differ across diagnosis and by treatment status. This ambiguity is partly addressed in longitudinal pre/post treatment studies with first episode patients. Antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients have shown intact performance on a predictive saccade task that assesses simple motor learning, spatial abilities, and response planning. After antipsychotic treatment, however, schizophrenia patients performing this task show a selective impairment in the accuracy of anticipatory responses, generated from learned internal representations of the task stimulus. This finding is in line with other observations of antipsychotic medication effects on frontostriatal systems, particularly dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We sought to replicate this provocative finding with an independent sample of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and extend it by including a group of patients with first episode bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP). Matched healthy controls were also studied in parallel. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact performance pretreatment followed by impairment post-treatment for accuracy of anticipatory responses, and worse accuracy was associated with higher antipsychotic dose. BDP patients displayed saccade accuracy deficits before and after treatment and had no correlation of performance and antipsychotic dose. The findings suggest different neural alterations early in the course of each psychotic disorder, and different vulnerabilities to antipsychotic treatment effects between schizophrenia and BDP.Schizophrenia Research 08/2014; 159(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.028 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Loxapine is an antipsychotic used in psychiatry for over 40 years with a well-established profile. Loxapine is a dibenzoxazepine tricyclic antipsychotic agent, available for oral, intramuscular and inhalatory administration. In the light of the recent approval by the regulatory agencies of inhaled loxapine for use in the acute treatment of mild-to-moderate agitation in adults affected with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, this article aims to critically review the available literature on loxapine, irrespective of its formulation. This review examines the efficacy and tolerability of the various formulations of loxapine in the treatment of agitation and aggression in patients affected with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychiatric conditions. A comprehensive and systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE was conducted, and relevant pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data was included. The findings from the literature were critically reviewed and synthesized. The available data suggests that the antipsychotic efficacy of loxapine is similar to the efficacy of other typical or atypical antipsychotics, with an adverse effects profile comparable to that of the typical antipsychotics at high doses for chronic treatment. As an acute treatment in agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, inhaled loxapine was developed as an innovative and rapid option which appears to be efficacious and tolerable. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12991-015-0053-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Annals of General Psychiatry 04/2015; 14:15. DOI:10.1186/s12991-015-0053-3 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1(st) day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS) and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI) scale. The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83). Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001). There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026) and weeks 2 (P = 0.035) and 4 (P = 0.042). There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003) and 6 (P = 0.000) and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005) and 6 (P = 0.002). The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone). Aripiprazole that is readily available in our market, could be considered more effective than risperidone in the treatment of acute mania.Journal of research in medical sciences 08/2014; 19(8):733-738. · 0.61 Impact Factor