cDermo-1 misexpression induces dense dermis, feathers, and scales

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology II, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.55). 02/2005; 277(1):42-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.08.050
Source: PubMed


Reciprocal epithelio-mesenchymal interactions between the prospective epidermis and the underlying dermis are the major driving forces in the development of skin appendages. Feather development is initiated by a still unknown signal from the dermis in feather-forming skin. The morphological response of the ectoderm to this signal is the formation of an epidermal placode, which signals back to the mesenchyme to induce dermal condensations. Together, epidermal and dermal components constitute the outgrowing feather bud. The bHLH transcription factor cDermo-1 is expressed in developing dermis and is the earliest known marker of prospective feather tracts. To test its function during feather development, we forced cDermo-1 expression in embryonic chicken dermis using a retroviral expression vector. In featherless (apteric) regions, cDermo-1 misexpression induced dense, thickened dermis normally observed in feathered skin (pterylae), and leads to the development of regularly spaced and normally shaped ectopic feather buds. In pterylae, cDermo-1 misexpression enhanced feather growth. In hindlimb skin, according to the local skin identity, misexpression of cDermo-1 induced ectopic scale formation. Thus, we show that forced cDermo-1 expression in developing dermis is sufficient to launch the developmental program leading to skin appendage formation. We propose a role of cDermo-1 at the initial stages of feather induction upstream of FGF10.

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Available from: Beate Brand-Saberi, Aug 15, 2014
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    • "Twist-2 is expressed in the subectodermal mesenchyme from the earliest stages of dermal differentiation (Scaal et al. 2001), as well as in developing skeletal elements (Li et al. 1995). Twist is a downstream target of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) signaling, and ectopic expression of either Bmp-2 or twist-2 leads to proliferation and condensation of targeted mesenchymal cells and ectopic feather formation by the overlying ectodermal cells (Scaal et al. 2002; Hornik et al. 2005). The upstream regulatory signals for twist-2 expression in amputated Xenopus limb buds and limbs are unknown; however, it has been suggested that expression is negatively regulated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling associated with nerves in the apical region of regenerating limb buds (Satoh et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Adult urodeles (salamanders) are unique in their ability to regenerate complex organs perfectly. The Accessory Limb Model (ALM) in the axolotl allows for the identification of signals from the wound epidermis, nerves and dermal fibroblasts that interact to regenerate a limb. In the present study, we have used the ALM to identity the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) orthologue of Twist (AmTwist), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is involved in the regeneration of the dermis during limb regeneration. AmTwist is expressed during the blastema stages in regeneration, but is inhibited by signals from the nerve during the early stages when dermal fibroblasts dedifferentiate to form blastema cells. As the dermis regenerates, AmTwist is expressed in association with the synthesis of type I collagen in the proximal region of the blastema. Exogenous bone morphogenetic protein-2 leads to an increase in AmTwist expression, and therefore may function as an endogenous regulator of AmTwist expression and dermis regeneration. The nerve appears to have a dual function in regeneration by coordinately regulating dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of dermal fibroblasts.
    Development Growth and Regeneration 01/2009; 50(9):743-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-169X.2008.01072.x · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Dense dermis formation and maturation are concomitant with expression of the twist-like bHLH transcription factor cDermo-1 in the subectodermal mesenchyme, until the dermal condensation formation (Scaal et al., 2001). The overexpression of cDermo-1 leads to the formation of an ectopic feather tract (Hornik et al., 2005). When the dermis is mature, an initial, ubiquitous and permissive der- The Supplementary Material referred to in this article can be viewed at "
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    ABSTRACT: During embryonic development, feathers appear first as primordia consisting of an epidermal placode associated with a dermal condensation. When 7-day chick embryo dorsal skin fragments showing three rows of feather primordia are cultured, they undergo a complete reorganization, which involves the down-regulation of morphogenetic genes and dispersal of dermal fibroblasts, leading to the disappearance of primordia. This loss of organisation is followed by de novo differentiation events. We have used this model to study potential factors involved in the formation of dermal condensations. Activation of Integrins by extracellular Manganese or intracellular Calcium prevents the initial disappearance of the dermal condensations. New primordia formation occurs even after inhibition of the Notch pathway albeit with some fusion between primordia. In conclusion, dermal fibroblast migration requires beta1-Integrin whereas the stability of dermal condensations could depend on Notch/Integrin interaction.
    Developmental Dynamics 03/2007; 236(3):755-68. DOI:10.1002/dvdy.21080 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vertebrate and invertebrate nervous tissue is derived from early embryonic ectoderm, which also gives rise to epidermal derivatives such as skin. Proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are the key players in the formation of peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) from naïve ectoderm to differentiated postmitotic neurons. The com-
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