The immunogenetics of asthma and eczema: a new focus on the epithelium.
ABSTRACT Asthma and eczema (atopic dermatitis) are the most common chronic diseases of childhood. These diseases are characterized by the production of high levels of immunoglobulin E in response to common allergens. Their development depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Over the past few years, several genes and genetic loci that are associated with increased susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis have been described. Many of these genes are expressed in the mucosa and epidermis, indicating that events at epithelial-cell surfaces might be driving disease processes. This review describes the mechanisms of innate epithelial immunity and the role of microbial factors in providing protection from disease development. Understanding events at the epithelial-cell surface might provide new insights for the development of new treatments for inflammatory epithelial disease.
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ABSTRACT: Fucosterol was extracted and purified from the brown algae Hizikia fusiformis. We assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fucosterol on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions in NC/Nga mice. Fucosterol decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide in mouse macrophage cells. Oral administration of fucosterol (200 mg/kg weight/day) decreased the frequency of scratching, epidermal thickness of the dorsal skin, and number of degranulated mast cells. In addition, fucosterol treatment decreased levels of DNCB-stimulated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Compared to the control concanavalin A, fucosterol inhibited levels of IL-4 and TNF-α and increased secretion of IFN-γ, in the media of cultured splenocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that fucosterol may attenuate AD-like lesions by exerting anti-inflammatory effects, including inhibition of IgE and inflammatory cytokines, which modulate the Th1/Th2 balance.Food science and biotechnology 04/2014; 23(2):593-599. DOI:10.1007/s10068-014-0081-9 · 0.66 Impact Factor