The purpose of this study is to reveal whether the application of immunohistochemical examinations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be a reliable method for the quantitative analysis of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) and the relationship between restoration of BNB and nerve regeneration. Sciatic nerves in rats were examined after nerve crush. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-rat endothelial cell antigen-1 (anti-RECA-1) that recognizes endothelial cells and anti-endothelial barrier antigen (anti-EBA) for the detection of barrier-type endothelial cells were used. Neurofilament for staining axons was also performed. A quantitative analysis of the BNB was assessed using the ratio of EBA positive cells and RECA-1 positive cells. The ratio of EBA/RECA-1 decreased significantly 3 days postoperatively and reached its lowest level at day 7 in the segment 5 mm proximal and the entire distal stump. The ratio gradually recovered from the proximal and the regeneration of axons started a week earlier than BNB. The ratio of EBA/RECA-1 applied to the PNS can be a reliable method for the quantitative analysis of BNB. In crush injuries, the breakdown of BNB occurred simultaneously in the segment 5 mm proximal and the entire distal stump; restoration began from the proximal to distal and followed a week later to nerve regeneration.
"During nerve regeneration, myelination of nerve fibers was used as a hallmark to determine the intensity of nerve regeneration . Neurofilament expression indicated the early evidence of nerve regeneration potential . The amount of S-100 immunoreactivity in myelinated fibers appeared to be directly correlated with thickness of myelin sheath formed by Schwann cells . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new version of the CatWalk XT system was evaluated as a tool for detecting very subtle alteration in gait based on higher speed sample rate; the system could also demonstrate minor changes in neurological function. In this study, we evaluated the neurological outcome of sciatic nerve injury intervened by local injection of hyaluronic acid. Using the CatWalk XT system, we looked for differences between treated and untreated groups and differences within the same group as a function of time so as to assess the power of the Catwalk XT system for detecting subtle neurological change.
Peripheral nerve injury was induced in 36 Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the left sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. The animals were randomized into one of two groups: Group I: crush injury as the control; Group II: crush injury and local application with hyaluronic acid. These animals were subjected to neurobehavior assessment, histomorphology evaluation, and electrophysiology study periodically. These data were retrieved for statistical analysis.
The density of neurofilament and S-100 over the distal end of crushed nerve showed significant differences either in inter-group comparison at various time points or intra-group comparison from 7 to 28 days. Neuronal structure architecture, axon counts, intensity of myelination, electrophysiology, and collagen deposition demonstrate significant differences between the two groups. There was significant difference of SFI and angle of ankle in inter- group analysis from 7 to 28 days, but there were no significant differences in SFI and angle of ankle at time points of 7 and 14 days. In the Cat Walk XT analysis, the intensity, print area, stance duration, and swing duration all showed detectable differences at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, whereas there were no significant difference at 7 and 14 days with CatWalk 7 testing. In addition, there were no significant differences of step sequence or regularity index between the two versions.
Hyaluronic acid augmented nerve regeneration as early as 7 days after crush injury. This subtle neurological alteration could be detected through the CatWalk XT gait analysis but not the SFI, angle of ankle, or CatWalk 7 methods.
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 04/2014; 11(1):62. DOI:10.1186/1743-0003-11-62 · 2.74 Impact Factor
"During nerve regeneration, the myelination of nerve fibers was a marker to determine the intensity of nerve regeneration . Neurofilament expression indicated the early evidence of nerve regeneration potential . The amount of S-100 immunoreactivity in myelinated fibers appeared to correlate directly with the thickness of the myelin sheath formed by Schwann cells . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors investigate the use of neural networks for the identification of linear time invariant dynamical systems. Two classes of networks, namely the multilayer feedforward network and the recurrent network with linear neurons are studied. Special attention is devoted to the initialization of weights using prior knowledge of the model structure and parameters, and to a system theory interpretation of neural models. Simulation results enhance the weakness of random initial weights on learning and give some indications for the implementation of the initialization procedures
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