Noninvasive monitoring of respiratory mechanics during sleep
ABSTRACT The sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome is characterised by recurrent obstructions of the upper airway, resulting in sleep disruption and arterial oxygen desaturations. Noninvasive assessment of respiratory mechanics during sleep is helpful in facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome. This series summarises the different tools that are currently available to noninvasively assess respiratory mechanics during sleep breathing disturbances. These techniques are classified according to the main variable monitored: ventilation, breathing effort or airway obstruction. Changes in patient ventilation are assessed by recording flow or volume signals by means of pneumotachographs, thermistors or thermocouples, nasal prongs or thoraco-abdominal bands. Common tools to noninvasively assess breathing efforts are the thoraco-abdominal bands and the pulse transit time technique. Upper airway obstruction is noninvasively characterised by its upstream resistance and its critical pressure or by means of the forced oscillation technique. Given the technical and practical limitations of each technique, combining different tools improves the reliability and robustness of patient assessment during sleep.
- SourceAvailable from: Deborshi Chakraborty[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, a MEMS based capacitive nasal sensor system for measuring Respiration Rate (RR) of human being is developed. At first two identical diaphragm based MEMS capacitive nasal sensors are designed and virtually fabricated. A proposed schematic of the system consists of signal conditioning circuitry alongwith the sensors is described here. In order to measure the respiration rate the sensors are mounted below Right Nostril (RN) and Left Nostril (LN), in such a way that the nasal airflow during inspiration and expiration impinge on the sensor diaphragms. Due to nasal airflow, the designed square diaphragm of the sensor is being deflected and thus induces a corresponding change in the original capacitance value. This change in capacitance value is to be detected by a correlated-double-sampling (CDS) capacitance-to-voltage converter is designed for a precision interface with a MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, followed by an amplifier and a differential cyclic ADC to digitize the pressure information. The designed MEMS based capacitive nasal sensors is capable of identifying normal RR (18.5±1.5 bpm) of human being. The design of sensors and its characteristics analysis are performed in a FEA/BEA based virtual simulation platform.International Conference on Sensing Technology 2014, Liverpool, U.K.; 09/2014
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ABSTRACT: Given the importance of the detection and classification of sleep apneas and hypopneas (SAHs) in the diagnosis and the characterization of the SAH syndrome, there is a need for a reliable noninvasive technique measuring respiratory effort. This paper proposes a new method for the scoring of SAHs based on the recording of the midsagittal jaw motion (MJM, mouth opening) and on a dedicated automatic analysis of this signal. Continuous wavelet transform is used to quantize respiratory effort from the jaw motion, to detect salient mandibular movements related to SAHs and to delineate events which are likely to contain the respiratory events. The classification of the delimited events is performed using multilayer perceptrons which were trained and tested on sleep data from 34 recordings. Compared with SAHs scored manually by an expert, the sensitivity and specificity of the detection were 86.1% and 87.4%, respectively. Moreover, the overall classification agreement in the recognition of obstructive, central, and mixed respiratory events between the manual and automatic scorings was 73.1%. The MJM signal is hence a reliable marker of respiratory effort and allows an accurate detection and classification of SAHs.IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 02/2008; 55(1):87-95. DOI:10.1109/TBME.2007.899351
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ABSTRACT: Determination of the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) as a measure of the severity of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a widely accepted methodology. However, the outcome of such a determination depends on the method used, is time consuming and insufficient for prediction of the effect of all treatment modalities. For these reasons more methods for evaluating the severity of OSAHS, based on different imaging modalities, have been looked into and recent studies have shown that anatomical properties determined from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images are good markers for the severity of the OSAHS. Therefore, we correlated anatomical measurements of a 3D reconstruction of the upper airway together with flow simulation results with the severity of OSAHS in order to find a combination of variables to indicate the severity of OSAHS in patients. The AHI of 20 non-selected, consecutive patients has been determined during a polysomnography. All patients also underwent a CT scan from which a 3D model of the upper airway geometry was reconstructed. This 3D model was used to evaluate the anatomical properties of the upper airway in OSAHS patients as well as to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations to evaluate the airflow and resistance of this upper airway. It has been shown that a combination of the smallest cross-sectional area and the resistance together with the body mass index (BMI) form a set of markers that predict very well the severity of OSAHS in patients within this study. We believe that these markers can be used to evaluate the outcome of an OSAHS treatment.Journal of Biomechanics 02/2007; 40(10):2207-13. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.10.024