Group VIA phospholipase A2 forms a signaling complex with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta expressed in pancreatic islet beta-cells.
ABSTRACT Insulin-secreting pancreatic islet beta-cells express a Group VIA Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) that contains a calmodulin binding site and protein interaction domains. We identified Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta (CaMKIIbeta) as a potential iPLA(2)beta-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening of a cDNA library using iPLA(2)beta cDNA as bait. Cloning CaMKIIbeta cDNA from a rat islet library revealed that one dominant CaMKIIbeta isoform mRNA is expressed by adult islets and is not observed in brain or neonatal islets and that there is high conservation of the isoform expressed by rat and human beta-cells. Binary two-hybrid assays using DNA encoding this isoform as bait and iPLA(2)beta DNA as prey confirmed interaction of the enzymes, as did assays with CaMKIIbeta as prey and iPLA(2)beta bait. His-tagged CaMKIIbeta immobilized on metal affinity matrices bound iPLA(2)beta, and this did not require exogenous calmodulin and was not prevented by a calmodulin antagonist or the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA. Activities of both enzymes increased upon their association, and iPLA(2)beta reaction products reduced CaMKIIbeta activity. Both the iPLA(2)beta inhibitor bromoenol lactone and the CaMKIIbeta inhibitor KN93 reduced arachidonate release from INS-1 insulinoma cells, and both inhibit insulin secretion. CaMKIIbeta and iPLA(2)beta can be coimmunoprecipitated from INS-1 cells, and forskolin, which amplifies glucose-induced insulin secretion, increases the abundance of the immunoprecipitatable complex. These findings suggest that iPLA(2)beta and CaMKIIbeta form a signaling complex in beta-cells, consistent with reports that both enzymes participate in insulin secretion and that their expression is coinduced upon differentiation of pancreatic progenitor to endocrine progenitor cells.
Article: Catalytic function of PLA2G6 is impaired by mutations associated with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy but not dystonia-parkinsonism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene have been identified in autosomal recessive neurodegenerative diseases classified as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), and dystonia-parkinsonism. These clinical syndromes display two significantly different disease phenotypes. NBIA and INAD are very similar, involving widespread neurodegeneration that begins within the first 1-2 years of life. In contrast, patients with dystonia-parkinsonism present with a parkinsonian movement disorder beginning at 15 to 30 years of age. The PLA2G6 gene encodes the PLA2G6 enzyme, also known as group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A(2), which has previously been shown to hydrolyze the sn-2 acyl chain of phospholipids, generating free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. We produced purified recombinant wildtype (WT) and mutant human PLA2G6 proteins and examined their catalytic function using in vitro assays with radiolabeled lipid substrates. We find that human PLA2G6 enzyme hydrolyzes both phospholipids and lysophospholipids, releasing free fatty acids. Mutations associated with different disease phenotypes have different effects on catalytic activity. Mutations associated with INAD/NBIA cause loss of enzyme activity, with mutant proteins exhibiting less than 20% of the specific activity of WT protein in both lysophospholipase and phospholipase assays. In contrast, mutations associated with dystonia-parkinsonism do not impair catalytic activity, and two mutations produce a significant increase in specific activity for phospholipid but not lysophospholipid substrates. These results indicate that different alterations in PLA2G6 function produce the different disease phenotypes of NBIA/INAD and dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD/NBIA is caused by loss of the ability of PLA2G6 to catalyze fatty acid release from phospholipids, which predicts accumulation of PLA2G6 phospholipid substrates and provides a mechanistic explanation for the accumulation of membranes in neuroaxonal spheroids previously observed in histopathological studies of INAD/NBIA. In contrast, dystonia-parkinsonism mutations do not appear to directly impair catalytic function, but may modify substrate preferences or regulatory mechanisms for PLA2G6.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12897. · 4.09 Impact Factor