Hematotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of benzene.
ABSTRACT Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in air. Progenitor cell colony formation significantly declined with increasing benzene exposure and was more sensitive to the effects of benzene than was the number of mature blood cells. Two genetic variants in key metabolizing enzymes, myeloperoxidase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, influenced susceptibility to benzene hematotoxicity. Thus, hematotoxicity from exposure to benzene occurred at air levels of 1 ppm or less and may be particularly evident among genetically susceptible subpopulations.
Article: Retrieval analyses of implanted biomaterials: light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic analyses of implants retrieved from humans.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report analyses obtained from 135 implant cases retrieved from humans and submitted to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry Research Foundation--Medical College of Georgia Implant Retrieval Center. The undecalcified samples were embedded in polymethyl-methacrylate and examined with scanning electron microscopy and with routine light via polarized or Nomarski microscopy. Cases included both orthopedic and dental implants as well as entire mandibles obtained at autopsy. Significant numbers of submitted implants had substantial amounts of adhered bone, which permitted evaluation of human bone remodeling to osseointegrated implants. These implants failed because of implant fracture. As has been observed in animal studies, an interdigitating canaliculi network provided communication between interfacial osteocytes and osteocytes deeper within the remodeled osteonal and trabecular bone. Significant numbers of osseointegrated fractured hydroxyapatite-coated dental implants demonstrated the adequate serviceability of these implants prior to biomaterial fracture. In contrast, the hydroxyapatite coating was dissociated from retrieved orthopedic implants, leading to extensive cup loosening and case failure. Caution is advised for the use of hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular implants. This study therefore underscores the need for evaluation of failed human dental and orthopedic implants. Correlations can be drawn between human retrieval and experimental animal studies.Journal of Oral Implantology 02/1999; 25(3):162-78; discussion 161. · 1.53 Impact Factor
Article: Detailed exposure assessment for a molecular epidemiology study of benzene in two shoe factories in China.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We carried out a detailed exposure assessment of benzene and toluene in two shoe factories in Tianjin, China. Our goal was to identify workers with a broad range of benzene exposures, for an epidemiologic study relating exposure to early biologic effects. A comprehensive exposure survey program was initiated. Over a period of 16 months, 2783 personal solvent exposure samples were collected in two workplaces from 250 workers. Mixed-effects models were used to identify factors affecting exposure. Principal component analyses (PCA) and subsequent regression analyses on the scores of the identified principal components were used to relate potential co-exposures to various exposure sources present in the workplace. The mean benzene exposure level was 21.86 p.p.m. (10th-90th percentiles 5.23-50.63 p.p.m.) in the smaller shoe factory (factory A) and 3.46 p.p.m. (10th-90th percentiles 0.20-7.00 p.p.m.) in the larger shoe factory (factory B). Within-factory exposure levels differed among job titles and were higher for subjects directly involved in handling glues. In contrast, mean toluene levels were relatively similar in the two factories (factory A, 9.52 p.p.m.; factory B, 15.88 p.p.m.). A seasonal trend was identified for both benzene and toluene in factory B. This could be explained in part by changes in air movement and ventilation patterns occurring during the year. A seasonal trend was not present in the smaller shoe factory, where general ventilation was absent. Supplemental analysis showed that exposure levels to other hydrocarbons were low (< or =5 p.p.m.), less than 5% of their respective ACGIH threshold limit values, and generally comparable in the two factories. PCA showed that co-exposures in factory B could largely be explained by glue sources that were used in distinct areas in the workplace. We demonstrated the occurrence of a broad range of benzene exposure levels in two shoe manufacturing factories in Tianjin, China. Benzene and toluene exposures were determined in part by the degree of contact with glues, the benzene and toluene content of each glue, air movement and ventilation patterns. The availability of long-term monthly personal monitoring data provides an excellent opportunity to estimate individual exposures at different times during the 1 yr period of observation.Annals of Occupational Hygiene 03/2004; 48(2):105-16. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depression of peripheral blood cells is a well-known indicator of benzene hematotoxicity. Previous studies of its effects on specific types of blood cells have yielded inconsistent results. We examine hematological findings and their possible relations with exposure markers validated in a recent biomarker project conducted in Tianjin, China. Personal benzene exposures were sampled with 3-M organic vapor monitors, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The peripheral blood cells were counted by a cell counter. The WBC differential was manually counted on a total of 900 cells by a US commercial laboratory. A total of 130 exposed workers and 51 age- and gender-matched unexposed subjects were recruited in this study. Benzene exposure levels monitored on the day of biological sample collection for exposed workers ranged from 0.06 to 122 ppm. Their 4-week average and cumulative benzene exposure levels were 0.08-54.5 ppm and 6.1-623.2 ppm-years, respectively. Significant decreases of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and neutrophils were observed and correlated with both personal benzene exposures and levels of urinary metabolites (S-phenylmercapuric acid and t,t-muconic acid) and albumin adducts of benzene oxide and 1,4-benzeoquinone. The depressions in RBC, WBC, and neutrophils observed in this study are not only exposure dependent, but also significantly different in the lowest exposed group (at or below 0.25 ppm) compared with unexposed subjects. The results of the present study appear to suggest that lymphocytes may not be more sensitive to chronic benzene exposure than neutrophils.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 11/2002; 42(4):275-85. · 1.63 Impact Factor