Blood samples from 132 consecutive hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients were obtained and tested weekly for BK virus DNA by use of quantitative real-time PCR. Forty-four patients (33%) developed BK viremia at a median of 41 days (range, 9-91 days) after transplantation. Patients with hemorrhagic cystitis that occurred after platelet engraftment had higher levels of viremia than did patients without hemorrhagic cystitis (median, 9.7x10(3) vs. 0 copies/mL; P=.008) and patients with hemorrhagic cystitis that occurred before platelet engraftment (median, 9.7x10(3) vs. 0 copies/mL; P=.0006). BK viremia also was strongly associated with postengraftment hemorrhagic cystitis in a time-dependent analysis (P=.004).
"In the case of patients undergoing haematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT), there are a wide range of drugs that are implicated in inducing HC, such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, busulphan and thiotepa . As the management of HSCT patients includes prolonged immunesuppression, there is also a susceptibility to develop viral related HC . The consequences of HC impact on the quality of life of HSCT patients, prolonged hospitalisation, increased requirement for transfusion support, and in the most severe cases, this may be a direct cause of patient death. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a recognised complication in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study evaluates the incidence and severity of HC in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT during hospitalisation and within the first 100 days following transplant, looking at the use of prophylaxis, management of HC, outcomes at 100 days post transplant, and to identify any correlations between development of HC and the different conditioning regimens for transplant or HC prevention methods used.
Four hundred and fifty patients (412 adult and 38 paediatric) were enrolled in this prospective, multicentre, and observational study. HC was observed in 55 patients (12.2%) of which 8/38 were paediatric (21% of total paediatric sample) and 47/412 adults (11.4% of total adult sample). HC was observed primarily in the non-related HSCT group (45/55; 81.8%, p= 0.001) compared to sibling and myeloablative transplant protocols (48/55; 87.3%; p= 0.008) and with respect to reduced intensity conditioning regimens (7/55;12.7%). In 33 patients with HC (60%), BK virus was isolated in urine samples, a potential co-factor in the pathogenesis of HC. The median day of HC presentation was 23 days post HSCT infusion, with a mean duration of 20 days. The most frequent therapeutic treatments were placement of a bladder catheter (31/55; 56%) and continuous bladder irrigation (40/55; 73%). The range of variables in terms of conditioning regimens and so on, makes analysis difficult.
This multi-centre national study reported similar incidence rates of HC to those in the literature. Evidence-based guidelines for prophylaxis and management are required in transplant centres. Further research is required to look at both prophylactic and therapeutic interventions, which also consider toxicity of newer conditioning regimens.
"While co-infection of polyomavirus and cytomegalovirus have been reported in renal transplant recipients [28,29] and after stem cell transplantation , the impact of recipient CMV seropositivity without evidence of CMV viremia on polyomavirus infection is unknown. However, in a study of 132 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients a positive recipient CMV serostatus and the underlying disease emerged as the only risk factors associated with BK viremia . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyomavirus BK nephropathy (PyVAN) remains an important cause of early graft dysfunction and graft loss in kidney transplantation.
In this retrospective, single centre cohort study we studied the incidence and outcome of BK viral infection in 352 patients transplanted in 2008--2011.
During follow-up viral replication was detected in 48 patients (13.6%); 22 patients (6.2%) had biopsy proven PyVAN.In multivariate logistic regression analyses risk factors for BK-viremia were lack of enrolment into randomized controlled trials (RCTs), biopsy proven acute rejections, cytomegaly virus (CMV) serostatus of both donor and recipient and previous transplantation.In patients without PyVAN reduction or switch of immunosuppression was associated with rapid viral clearance and stable graft function. In contrast, in most patients with PyVAN graft function deteriorated and 5 patients prematurely lost their allograft. Switch of immunosuppression to a low dose cyclosporine plus mTOR inhibitor based regimen in patients with PyVAN was safe, well tolerated and tended to be associated with a better short-term outcome in terms of graft function compared to reduction of existing immunosuppression alone.
With the lack of licensed anti-polyoma viral drugs reduction or conversion of immunosuppression remains the mainstay of therapy in patients with PyVAN. The combination of low dose cyclosporine plus mTOR inhibition appears to be safe and warrants further investigation.
"We utilized the DNA extraction methods in our previously published studies of PCR detection of human herpesviruses, BK and JC viruses (Marra et al, 2002; Wald et al, 2003; Erard et al, 2004). In brief, DNA was extracted from 5 ul of the stock viral isolates and from 200 ul of clinical samples using either QIAamp 96 DNA blood kits manually or using QIAamp Robot kits with BioRobot 3000. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenoviruses (AdVs) have been associated with a wide variety of human disease and are increasingly recognized as viral pathogens that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Early detection of AdV DNA in plasma and sterile fluids has been shown to be useful for identifying patients at risk for invasive AdV disease. Because of the large number of existing Adv types, few real-time quantitative AdV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays published effectively cover all AdV types. We designed a series of AdV PCR primers and probes and empirically multiplexed them into 2 separate real-time PCR assays to quantitatively detect all 49 serotypes of human AdV (types 1-49) available from American Type Culture Collection. We then subsequently multiplexed all the primers and probes into 1 reaction. The sensitivity of these assays was determined to be less than 10 copies per reaction (500 copies/mL plasma). In a retrospective evaluation, we detected all 84 clinical AdV isolates isolated in cell culture from patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 1981 and 1987. Prospective analysis of 46 consecutive clinical samples submitted for AdV testing showed greater sensitivity and equal specificity of the AdV PCR than viral culture. This real-time PCR assay allows rapid, sensitive, and specific quantification of all currently defined AdVs into either 2 or 1 multiplex assay for clinical samples.
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