Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis: an entity distinct from acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5200, USA.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 06/2005; 18(5):603-14. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.3800348
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The WHO criteria for diagnosing acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis are somewhat distinct from those for acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. However, clinical and hematopathologic findings partially overlap. This has raised questions as to whether these are indeed separate, definable entities. To determine the potential importance of bone marrow biopsy supplemented by immunohistochemistry in distinguishing between these two conditions, we studied 17 bone marrow biopsies of well-characterized cases of acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (six cases) and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (11 cases). We compared blast frequency, reticulin content, CD34 expression, and the degree of megakaryocytic differentiation of the blast cells in these two conditions. Our results demonstrate important differences. Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis is characterized by a multilineage myeloid proliferation with a less numerous population of blasts than acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (P<0.01). In the former condition, blasts are always positive with CD34, while in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia they express CD34 in 60% of the cases. The blasts in acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis only rarely express megakaryocytic antigens. By contrast, acute megakaryoblastic leukemia has a significantly higher proportion of blasts expressing megakaryocytic antigens (P<0.01 with CD42b). Our results confirm that histology supplemented by immunohistochemistry permits the distinction of these conditions in routinely processed bone marrow biopsies.

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    ABSTRACT: One case of acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF) is here reported. A 45 year old male presented with abrupt onset of rapidly progressing low backache, weakness and pancytopenia. On examination there was no organomegaly. Peripheral blood examination revealed normocytic normochromic red blood cells with 10% circulating blasts. Flowcytometric examination of peripheral blood revealed blasts which were positive for CD34, HLA- DR and myeloid associated antigens (i.e. CD13 and CD33). Blasts were negative for anti MPO. Bone marrow aspirate resulted in a dry tap. Bone marrow biopsy revealed panmyeloid proliferation with scattered blasts which were CD34 positive on imunohistochemistry and negative for anti MPO. Reticulin stain showed grade III myelofibrosis (WHO). Differential diagnosis considered included AML-M7, MDS-RAEB II and AML with myelodysplasia. He was started on chemotherapy [idarubicin and cytarabine; 3+7 induction regimen followed by three cycles of HIDAC (High dose cytosine arabinoside)] after which patient was in complete morphological remission with markedly reduced bone marrow fibrosis. He is now being worked up for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Patient is asymptomatic at eight months of diagnosis. In conclusion these patients should be managed aggressively with AML therapy and this case report reaffirms the fact that APMF is subtype of AML.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to characterize clinicopathological features of acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF), acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with myelofibrosis (AMKL-MF), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and myelodysplastic syndrome with myelofibrosis (MDS-MF) in order to provide the keys to the differential diagnosis of bone marrow (BM) fibrosis. METHODS: We compared age, gender, splenomegaly, serum lactate dehydrogenase level, blood cell counts, blast counts in peripheral blood (PB) and BM, megakaryocyte counts, BM cellularity, dysplasia, and the karyotypes of patients with APMF (n = 6), AMKL-MF (n = 7), PMF (n = 44), and MDS-MF (n = 44). RESULTS: APMF showed hyperplasia of all three lineages, increase in megakaryocyte count with dysplasia and frequent abnormal karyotypes. AMKL-MF was associated with elevated BM blast counts, decreased BM megakaryocyte count with rare megakaryocytic dysplasia and chromosome 21 abnormality. PMF patients displayed splenomegaly, rare blasts in PB/BM, and JAK2 V617F mutation. MDS-MF patients showed pancytopenia, dysplasia in all three lineages and recurrent chromosomal abnormalities involving chromosome 5,7,12, and 17. CONCLUSIONS: Although differential diagnosis among APMF, AMKL-MF, PMF, and MDS-MF is very challenging due to the overlapping clinical and morphological features, meticulous investigation of the patient with respect to splenomegaly, blood cell count, PB and BM findings, and karyotype will serve as a guide to correct diagnosis.
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