High intakes of milk, but not meat, increase s-insulin and insulin resistance in 8-year-old boys.

Department of Human Nutrition and Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.95). 04/2005; 59(3):393-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602086
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our objective was to examine if a high animal protein intake from milk or meat increased s-insulin and insulin resistance in healthy, prepubertal children. A high animal protein intake results in higher serum branched chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine and valine) concentrations, which are suggested to stimulate insulin secretion. Furthermore, milk possesses some postprandial insulinotrophic effect that is not related to its carbohydrate content.
A total of 24 8-y-old boys were asked to take 53 g protein as milk or meat daily. At baseline and after 7 days, diet was registered, and insulin, glucose, and amino acids were determined. Insulin resistance and beta cell function were calculated with the homeostasis model assessment.
Protein intake increased by 61 and 54% in the milk- and meat-group, respectively. In the milk-group, fasting s-insulin concentrations doubled, which caused the insulin resistance to increase similarly. In the meat-group, there was no increase in insulin and insulin resistance. As the BCAAs increased similarly in both groups, stimulation of insulin secretion through BCAAs is not supported.
Our results indicate that a short-term high milk, but not meat, intake increased insulin secretion and resistance. The long-term consequences of this are unknown. The effect of high protein intakes from different sources on glucose-insulin metabolism needs further studying.

Download full-text


Available from: Camilla Hoppe, Jul 05, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presented hypothesis identifies milk consumption as an environmental risk factor of Western diet promoting type 2 diabetes (T2D). Milk, commonly regarded as a valuable nutrient, exerts important endocrine functions as an insulinotropic, anabolic and mitogenic signalling system supporting neonatal growth and development. The presented hypothesis substantiates milk's physiological role as a signalling system for pancreatic β-cell proliferation by milk's ability to increase prolactin-, growth hormone and incretin-signalling. The proposed mechanism of milk-induced postnatal β-cell mass expansion mimics the adaptive prolactin-dependent proliferative changes observed in pregnancy. Milk signalling down-regulates the key transcription factor FoxO1 leading to up-regulation of insulin promoter factor-1 which stimulates β-cell proliferation, insulin secretion as well as coexpression of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). The recent finding that adult rodent β-cells only proliferate by self-duplication is of crucial importance, because permanent milk consumption beyond the weaning period may continuously over-stimulate β-cell replication thereby accelerating the onset of replicative β-cell senescence. The long-term use of milk may thus increase endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and toxic IAPP oligomer formation by overloading the ER with cytotoxic IAPPs thereby promoting β-cell apoptosis. Both increased β-cell proliferation and β-cell apoptosis are hallmarks of T2D. This hypothesis gets support from clinical states of hyperprolactinaemia and progeria syndromes with early onset of cell senescence which are both associated with an increased incidence of T2D and share common features of milk signalling. Furthermore, the presented milk hypothesis of T2D is compatible with the concept of high ER stress in T2D and the toxic oligomer hypothesis of T2D and may explain the high association of T2D and Alzheimer disease.
    Medical Hypotheses 04/2011; 76(4):553-9. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2010.12.017 · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Milk increases both fasting insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and thereby growth, in healthy prepubertal boys. It is, however, unknown which components in milk are responsible for milk's growth-stimulating effect. To get closer to the identification of which components in milk that stimulate growth, we have performed an intervention study with 57 eight-year-old boys in which we examined the effects of the two major milk protein fractions, whey and casein, and milk minerals (Ca and P) in a 2 x 2 factorial design on IGFs and glucose-insulin metabolism. The amounts of whey and casein were identical to the content in 1.5 l skim milk. The amounts of Ca and P were similar to 1.5 l skim milk in the high-mineral drinks, whereas the amounts of Ca and P were reduced in the low-mineral drinks. There were no interactions between milk mineral groups (high, low) and milk protein groups (whey, casein). Serum IGF-1 increased by 15% (P<0.0001), whereas there was no change in fasting insulin (P=0.36) in the casein group. In the whey group, fasting insulin increased by 21% (P=0.006), with no change in IGF-1 (P=0.27). There were no independent effects of a high milk mineral intake on IGF-1 and insulin. The main milk protein fractions exhibit important but different growth-promoting effects by increasing either fasting insulin (whey) or IGF-1 (casein) levels.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 06/2009; 63(9):1076-83. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2009.34 · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the ability of an NMR-based metabonomic approach, applied to biofluids, to explore and identify overall exogenous and endogenous biochemical effects of a short-time high intake of milk protein or meat protein given to prepubertal children, the aim being to compare relative differences and not an absolute quantification. A total of twenty-four 8-year-old boys were asked to take 53 g protein as milk (n 12) or meat daily (n 12). At baseline and after 7 d, urine and serum samples were collected and high-resolution 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these using a 800 MHz spectrometer. The milk diet reduced the urinary excretion of hippurate, while the meat diet increased the urinary excretion of creatine, histidine and urea. The NMR measurements on serum revealed minor changes in the lipid profile, which most probably should be ascribed to an increase in the content of SCFA in the blood after consumption of the milk diet. The meat diet had no effect on the metabolic profile of serum. The study for the first time demonstrates the capability of proton NMR-based metabonomics to identify the overall biochemical effects of consumption of different animal proteins. The urine metabolite profile is more susceptible to perturbations as a result of short diet interventions than the serum metabolite profile. The milk diet-induced reduction in urinary excretion of hippurate suggests alterations in gut microflora, which may be useful information for further studies elucidating the effects of bioactive components in milk.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 05/2007; 97(4):758-63. DOI:10.1017/S0007114507450322 · 3.34 Impact Factor