High intake of milk, but not meat, increases insulin and insulin resistance in 8 year old boys

Department of Human Nutrition and Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 04/2005; 59(3):393-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602086
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our objective was to examine if a high animal protein intake from milk or meat increased s-insulin and insulin resistance in healthy, prepubertal children. A high animal protein intake results in higher serum branched chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine and valine) concentrations, which are suggested to stimulate insulin secretion. Furthermore, milk possesses some postprandial insulinotrophic effect that is not related to its carbohydrate content.
A total of 24 8-y-old boys were asked to take 53 g protein as milk or meat daily. At baseline and after 7 days, diet was registered, and insulin, glucose, and amino acids were determined. Insulin resistance and beta cell function were calculated with the homeostasis model assessment.
Protein intake increased by 61 and 54% in the milk- and meat-group, respectively. In the milk-group, fasting s-insulin concentrations doubled, which caused the insulin resistance to increase similarly. In the meat-group, there was no increase in insulin and insulin resistance. As the BCAAs increased similarly in both groups, stimulation of insulin secretion through BCAAs is not supported.
Our results indicate that a short-term high milk, but not meat, intake increased insulin secretion and resistance. The long-term consequences of this are unknown. The effect of high protein intakes from different sources on glucose-insulin metabolism needs further studying.

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Available from: Camilla Hoppe, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "These data support our recent proposal that milk functions as an endocrine signaling system promoting mTORC1 signaling driving anabolic pathways for postnatal growth [3]. Adipogenic and insulin resistance inducing effects of whole milk consumption are compatible with recent observations in human subjects, who have been supplemented with milk protein fractions [4] [5]. Western diet, characterized by persistent milk and dairy protein consumption, may thus promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization [6]. "
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 06/2014; 58(6):1166-7. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201470054 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Plasma BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) and glutamine/glutamate are increased in obesity, insulin resistance and type 2-diabetes (T2D) [2-9]. An extra daily intake of 53 g milk protein but not 53 g meat increased serum insulin and insulin resistance in 8-year-old boys [10]. Impaired BCAA catabolism of adipocytes is a crucial metabolic deviation of obesity [11,12] (Figure  1A). "
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    ABSTRACT: Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual's pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 10/2013; 10(1):60. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-10-60 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Water soluble, easily hydrolysable whey proteins in comparison to all other animal-derived structural muscle proteins provide highest amounts of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine, which raise postprandial insulin plasma levels within minutes [15-17]. Furthermore, whey proteins induce the secretion of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which in concert with insulinotropic BCAAs co-stimulates insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells [15,16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Milk has been recognized to represent a functionally active nutrient system promoting neonatal growth of mammals. Cell growth is regulated by the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). There is still a lack of information on the mechanisms of mTORC1 up-regulation by milk consumption. This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. Importantly, milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes. Whereas human breast milk is the ideal food for infants allowing appropriate postnatal growth and species-specific metabolic programming, persistent high milk signaling during adolescence and adulthood by continued cow s milk consumption may promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization.
    Nutrition Journal 07/2013; 12(1):103. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-103 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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