Relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and poor outcomes among adults with asthma.
ABSTRACT Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) can improve asthma symptoms and prevent exacerbations. However, overall adherence is poor among patients with asthma. Objective To estimate the proportion of poor asthma-related outcomes attributable to ICS nonadherence.
We retrospectively identified 405 adults age 18 to 50 years who had asthma and were members of a large health maintenance organization in southeast Michigan between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2001. Adherence indices were calculated by using medical records and pharmacy claims. The main outcomes were the number of asthma-related outpatient visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations, as well as the frequency of oral steroid use.
Overall adherence to ICS was approximately 50%. Adherence to ICS was significantly and negatively correlated with the number of emergency department visits (correlation coefficient [ R ] = -0.159), the number of fills of an oral steroid ( R = -0.179), and the total days' supply of oral steroid ( R = -0.154). After adjusting for potential confounders, including the prescribed amount of ICS, each 25% increase in the proportion of time without ICS medication resulted in a doubling of the rate of asthma-related hospitalization (relative rate, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.06-3.79). During the study period, there were 80 asthma-related hospitalizations; an estimated 32 hospitalizations would have occurred were there no gaps in medication use (60% reduction).
Adherence to ICS is poor among adult patients with asthma and is correlated with several poor asthma-related outcomes. Less than perfect adherence to ICS appears to account for the majority of asthma-related hospitalizations.
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ABSTRACT: Medication regimens for asthma are particularly vulnerable to adherence problems because of the requirement for long-term use and periods of symptom remission experienced by patients. Pharmacists are suited to impact medication adherence given their training, skills, and frequent contact with patients. The Empowering pharmacists in asthma management through interactive SMS (EmPhAsIS) trial involves an intervention leveraging mobile health (mHealth) technology to support community pharmacy practice with the hypothesis of improved medication adherence in asthma. This study is a pragmatic pharmacy-based, cluster, randomized controlled trial with 12 months of intervention delivery and follow-up. Pharmacies (the clusters) will be randomized at a 1:1 ratio to provide intervention or usual care. The EmPhAsIS intervention consists of patient asthma education, short message service (SMS)-based monthly assessment of adherence, and follow-up of non-adherent individuals by community pharmacists. There are no inclusion or exclusion criteria for pharmacies. Patients are eligible if they: are 14 years of age or older, fill a prescription for inhaled corticosteroid (either monotherapy or in a combination inhaler with long-acting beta-agonists), have been diagnosed with asthma, possess a mobile phone with SMS capabilities, and have no communication difficulties such as inability to communicate in English, or significant impairment in vision, hearing, or speech. The primary outcome is adherence to inhaled corticosteroids ascertained by the medication possession ratio, the ratio of the days of medication supplied to days in a given time interval. This study will also evaluate secondary outcomes including: asthma control, asthma-related quality of life, asthma-related hospital admissions, and use of reliever medications during the follow-up period. A nested economic evaluation using a probabilistic decision-analytic model will be used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis from the societal perspective of the intervention compared with usual care over a 10-year time horizon. Considering the prevalence of asthma, the extent of the non-adherence problem in this disease, and the availability of effective treatments, there is a tremendous potential to reduce the burden of asthma through improving adherence. This is the first study of an intervention based on mobile communication technology involving community pharmacists in asthma management.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT 02170883; date of registration: 19 June 2014.Trials. 12/2014; 15(1):488.
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ABSTRACT: Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a major issue in asthma. This study aimed to estimate the accuracy of the days' supply and number of refills allowed, variables recorded in Québec claims databases and used to estimate adherence, and to develop correction factors, if required. We hypothesised that the accuracy of the days' supply for ICS would be low whereas the accuracy of the number of refills allowed would be high. 40 community pharmacies in Québec (Canada) and a medication registry. We collected data for 1108 ICS original prescriptions stored in the 40 pharmacies (sample 1), and we obtained a second sample of 2676 ICS prescriptions selected from reMed, a medication registry (sample 2). We estimated the concordance of the days' supply and number of refills between Québec claims databases and the original prescription from sample 1. We developed a correction factor for the days' supply in sample 1 and validated it in sample 2. Analyses were stratified by age: 0-11 and 12-64 years. In sample 1, the concordance for the days' supply was 39.6% (95% CI 37.6% to 41.6%) in those aged 0-11 years and 56% (54.9% to 57.2%) in those aged 12-64 years. The concordance increased to 59.4% (58.2% to 60.5%) in those aged 0-11 years and 74.2% (73.5% to 74.9%) in those aged 12-64 years after applying the correction factors in sample 2. The concordance for the refills allowed was 92.1% (91% to 93.1%) in those aged 0-11 years and 93.1% (92.5% to 93.7%) in those aged 12-64 years in sample 1. The accuracy of the days' supply was moderate among those aged 0-11 years and substantial among those aged 12-64 years after applying the correction factors. The accuracy of the number of refills was almost perfect in both groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.BMJ Open 11/2014; 4(11):e005903. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent publications have shown that copayment reductions increase medication adherence above the effects of existing disease management programs, demonstrating an additive effect of combining a value-based insurance design with a disease management program. This effect, however, has yet to be demonstrated for medications used for the treatment of asthma.American Health and Drug Benefits 11/2010; 3(6):394-402.