Article

Relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and poor outcomes among adults with asthma

Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detoit, MI 48202, USA.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.25). 02/2005; 114(6):1288-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.09.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) can improve asthma symptoms and prevent exacerbations. However, overall adherence is poor among patients with asthma. Objective To estimate the proportion of poor asthma-related outcomes attributable to ICS nonadherence.
We retrospectively identified 405 adults age 18 to 50 years who had asthma and were members of a large health maintenance organization in southeast Michigan between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2001. Adherence indices were calculated by using medical records and pharmacy claims. The main outcomes were the number of asthma-related outpatient visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations, as well as the frequency of oral steroid use.
Overall adherence to ICS was approximately 50%. Adherence to ICS was significantly and negatively correlated with the number of emergency department visits (correlation coefficient [ R ] = -0.159), the number of fills of an oral steroid ( R = -0.179), and the total days' supply of oral steroid ( R = -0.154). After adjusting for potential confounders, including the prescribed amount of ICS, each 25% increase in the proportion of time without ICS medication resulted in a doubling of the rate of asthma-related hospitalization (relative rate, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.06-3.79). During the study period, there were 80 asthma-related hospitalizations; an estimated 32 hospitalizations would have occurred were there no gaps in medication use (60% reduction).
Adherence to ICS is poor among adult patients with asthma and is correlated with several poor asthma-related outcomes. Less than perfect adherence to ICS appears to account for the majority of asthma-related hospitalizations.

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    • "In cases where beforeafter changes in treatment associated with co-payment increases can plausibly be assumed to be random with respect to baseline individual differences, as they typically can be other than in marginal cases of adverse selection, causal inferences can legitimately be made from such data (Hernan and Robins, 2006). Research using this logic has documented a number of powerful treatment effects, such as a two-fold decrease in asthma-related hospitalizations associated with a 25% increase in the proportion of time patients with asthma use inhaled corticosteroids (Williams et al., 2004). Although this same research paradigm could be used to carry out clinical epidemiological studies on the effectiveness of commonly used treatments for mental disorders, we are unaware of any published clinical epidemiological research of this sort that has focused on mental disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisherige Projekte zur Pharmazeutischen Betreuung haben sich auf Erwachsene konzentriert. Daraus ergab sich die Fragestellung, inwiefern Kinder und Jugendliche von einer Pharmazeutischen Betreuung profitieren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde diese Frage an der Modellkrankheit Asthma bronchiale untersucht. Zur Pharmazeutischen Betreuung von erwachsenen Asthmatikern lagen bereits einige Studien vor. Kinder wurden jedoch noch in keiner der Untersuchungen, die in Europa durchgeführt wurden, eingeschlossen. Folglich eröffnete sich die Möglichkeit, erstmals einen Beitrag zur Pharmazeutischen Betreuung von asthmakranken Kindern und Jugendlichen im Rahmen von öffentlichen Apotheken in Deutschland zu liefern. Der Effekt der Pharmazeutischen Betreuung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Asthma bronchiale wurde im Rahmen einer Studie untersucht, die in Kooperation mit Offizinapothekern durchgeführt wurde. Hauptzielkriterium der Studie war die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität der asthmakranken Kinder und Jugendlichen sowie deren Eltern. Des Weiteren wurden klinische, ökonomische und intermediäre Zielkriterien erfasst. Die Pharmazeutische Betreuung erfolgte gemäß eines für die Untersuchung erarbeiteten, modifizierten TOM-Schemas. Die Treffen zwischen Apotheker und Patient fanden alle sechs bis acht Wochen über einen Zeitraum von einem Jahr statt. Es konnte eine repräsentative Patientenpopulation von 28 Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Asthma bronchiale rekrutiert werden. Da keine Kontrollgruppe erhoben werden konnte, wurde die Untersuchung als Prä-Post Studie ausgewertet. Die angestrebte Patientenzahl von 35 Patienten wurde allerdings nicht erreicht, weshalb die Untersuchung als Pilotstudie angesehen werden muss. Dennoch konnte ein statistisch und klinisch signifikanter Effekt der Pharmazeutischen Betreuung auf die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität der Eltern gezeigt werden: Der Gesamtwert des PACQLQ verbesserte sich von einem Median (Interquartil) von 5,1 (3,9–6,3) an der Basislinie auf 6,2 (5,1-6,8) (p=0,016) nach einem Jahr Pharmazeutischer Betreuung. Der für diesen Fragebogen definierte Schwellenwert für eine klinisch signifikante Verbesserung wurde von acht der vierzehn Eltern erreicht oder überschritten. Für die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität der asthmakranken Kinder und Jugendlichen, die mit einem generischen Fragebogen erfasst wurde, wurde keine statistisch signifikante Entwicklung beobachtet. Die Asthmakontrolle befand sich mit einem medianen Wert von 0,7 Punkten per ACQ schon an der Basislinie auf einem für Kinder und Jugendliche mit Asthma bronchiale untypisch hohem Niveau. Entsprechend konnte für diesen Endpunkt kein statistisch signifikanter Effekt der Pharmazeutischen Betreuung festgestellt werden. Bei der vorliegenden Studie handelt es sich um die erste Erhebung zur Pharmazeutischen Betreuung von Asthmatikern, in der die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität der Eltern der asthmakranken Kinder bzw. Jugendlichen erfasst wurde. Dagegen sollte für die Messung der gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität der asthmakranken Kinder und Jugendlichen auf einen krankheitsspezifischen Fragebogen zurückgegriffen werden, da diese veränderungssensitiver sind als generische Fragebögen. Für Studien zur Pharmazeutischen Betreuung von Asthmatikern ist aufgrund der Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie zu überlegen, ob anhand des seit kurzem vorliegenden Schwellenwertes für den ACQ schwerpunktmäßig Patienten mit nicht ausreichend kontrolliertem Asthma rekrutiert werden sollten. Ein weiteres Ziel der Arbeit bestand darin, den potentiellen Stellenwert des 8-iso Prostaglandin F2 alpha, das als Marker für die Bestimmung des Entzündungsgrades diskutiert wird, für die Therapieoptimierung im Rahmen von Studien zur Pharmazeutischen Betreuung von asthmakranken Kindern und Jugendlichen zu evaluieren. Voraussetzung für die Verwendung eines Markers im Rahmen von Studien bzw. von Routinediagnostik und –monitoring bei Kindern ist, ein möglichst nicht-invasiv zugängliches Spezimen zu finden, in dem der Marker zuverlässig bestimmt werden kann. Hierfür wurden im Rahmen einer Querschnittsstudie erstmals von gesunden Kindern sowie von Kindern mit Asthma bzw. Cystischer Fibrose Atemkondensat, Speichel, Serum und Urin gesammelt. Die Konzentrationen des 8-iso Prostaglandin F2 alpha, die bestimmt wurden, waren im Bereich des Detektionslimits des verwendeten ELISA und es stellte sich heraus, dass die Ergebnisse nicht reproduzierbar waren. Zudem war im Rahmen der Pilotstudie keine Korrelation zwischen den Konzentrationen in den verschiedenen Spezimen nachweisbar und es bestand kein offensichtlicher Unterschied zwischen den Konzentrationen bei gesunden und erkrankten Kindern. Folglich erscheint die Erfassung des 8-iso Prostaglandin F2 alpha für Studien zur Pharmazeutischen Betreuung von asthmakranken Kindern und Jugendlichen zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt weniger geeignet. Als Alternative ist die Messung des exhalierten NO in Erwägung zu ziehen. Projects on Pharmaceutical Care have focused on adults. Thus, the impact of Pharmaceutical Care on children remains to be determined. In the present thesis, asthma was chosen as model illness, as it is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood in Europe and North America. The effect of Pharmaceutical Care for adults with asthma has already been shown to be positive in several trials. Children, however, had not been included in any of the trials that had been carried out in Europe. Accordingly, there was a need for a contribution to Pharmaceutical Care of children and adolescents with asthma in outpatient care in Germany. The effect of Pharmaceutical Care for children and adolescents with asthma was studied in the scope of a trial that was carried out in cooperation with community pharmacists. Primary outcome of the trial was health-related quality of life of the children as well as of their parents. Besides, clinical, economic and intermediate outcomes were assessed. The Pharmaceutical Care was structured according to a modified therapeutic outcomes monitoring (TOM) model. Meetings of pharmacists and patients within the scope of Pharmaceutical Care took place every six to eight weeks over a period of one year. A representative patient population (n = 28) was recruited. As no control group could be enlisted, data were analyzed pre-post. The required number of 35 patients according to the power analysis for pre-post design was not met, so that the present trial has to be regarded as a pilot study. Despite that, a statistical and clinical significance of Pharmaceutical Care on quality of life of caregivers could be shown: The total score of PACQLQ improved from a median (interquartile range) of 5,1 (3,9 – 6,3) at baseline to 6,2 (5,1 – 6,8) after one year of Pharmaceutical Care (p = 0,016). Eight out of fourteen parents met or exceeded the threshold for minimal important improvement that had been established for that questionnaire. For health-related quality of life of children and adolescents, which was assessed with a generic questionnaire, no statistically significant difference was observed. With a median of 0.7 points on ACQ, the level of asthma control at baseline was atypically high for an asthma population. No further improvement of the level of asthma control could be achieved. The present study is the first trial on Pharmaceutical Care that assessed health-related quality of life of caregivers as an outcome. It is highly advisable that further studies on Pharmaceutical Care for children and adolescents stick to this outcome. Based on the results of this work, disease-specific questionnaires should be preferred to generic questionnaires for assessing quality of life of parents as well as of children and adolescents in studies on Pharmaceutical Care. Recently, a threshold for inadequately controlled asthma was established for the asthma control questionnaire that was utilized in the present trial. This threshold may help to focus on patients with inadequately controlled asthma in further trials on Pharmaceutical Care for asthma patients. An additional goal of the present work was to evaluate the utility of 8-iso prostaglandin F2 alpha, a potential marker of inflammation, for optimizing therapy in the scope of trials with Pharmaceutical Care for children and adolescents with asthma. In order to be able to employ a marker in the framework of a study or in the scope of routine diagnosis and monitoring, it is necessary to establish a valid measurement of the marker in a preferentially non-invasively obtained specimen. Accordingly, a cross-sectional pilot study was realized, in the scope of which the specimen breath condensate, saliva, serum and urine were collected from healthy children as well as from children with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2 alpha, in breath condensate were close to the limit of detection of the EIA and turned out to be non-reproducible, and no correlation between 8-iso Prostaglandin F2 alpha levels in different specimen could be proven. Additionally, there was no obvious difference between levels measured in healthy children and children with inflammatory disease. At present, it is less advisable to employ 8-iso prostaglandin F2 alpha in long-term trials. Alternatively, exhaled NO may be considered as a guide to optimize therapy of asthma.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the rate of adherence to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in patients with severe asthma, to identify predictive factors for adherence and to evaluate the relationship between adherence to treatment and parameters of clinical and functional response. Methods: Prospective cohort study of patients enrolled in the Program for the Control of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The study comprised 160 patients with severe asthma, monitored for 180 days in order to evaluate adherence (dependent variable) to the prescribed inhaled corticosteroid. Independent variables were assessed at baseline and for a six-month follow-up period by means of interviews and the completion of a standardized questionnaire.Patients recorded the missed doses in a diary. Results: Of the 160 patients. 158 completed the study. Adherence rate was 83.8%. Of the 158 patients, 112 (70.9%) were considered adherent (cut-off point: 80% of prescribed doses administered). There was a significant association between asthma control and adherence to treatment.Predictors of poor adherence were adverse effects, living far from the referral center, limited resources to pay for transportation and dose schedule. Other factors, such as depressive symptoms, religion and economic status, were not associated with poor adherence. Conclusions: Adherence to asthma treatment was high and was associated with the clinical response to treatment, in a sample of patients with severe asthma enrolled in a public program that provides free medication and the assistance of a multiprofessional specialized team in a referral center