Habitual risk factors for head and neck cancer

Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.72). 01/2005; 131(6):986-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.otohns.2004.02.035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are well-established risk factors for the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. There are, however, a variety of other habitual and culturally based activities that are less commonly seen in the Western world and that are also risks factors for the development of this type of cancer. In this era of globalization, many of these habits have now crossed borders and appear in various areas throughout the world. This article reviews habitual and social risk factors for cancer of the head and neck, excluding smoking and alcohol consumption. These factors include chewing tobacco and snuff, areca nut in its various forms, Khat leaves, and the drinking of Mate. EBM RATING: D.

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    • "La gente piensa que esta costumbre les hace mejores trabajadores. En las últimas décadas se ha extendido a otros países Africanos, a Europa , Australia y los Estados Unidos gracias a los inmigrantes de Yemen, Somalia y Etiopía (Goldenberg et al., 2004). Un estudio realizado en una comunidad rural etíope, encontró "
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    ABSTRACT: El Khat o Catha Edulis Forsk, es un arbusto que se emplea por sus propiedades euforizantes y estimulantes del sistema nervioso central y por su capacidad para aliviar la fatiga, sin embargo, su consumo abusivo produce efectos adversos sobre las funciones cognitivas. En este artículo de revisión se resume el origen, la producción, farmacología, toxicología, neuropsicología y los aspectos psicosociales del consumo del khat en un intento por aportar el mayor conocimiento posible sobre este arbusto, sus propiedades y efectos. Además, se centra especial atención en los aspectos psicológicos y neuropsicológicos que produce, entre los que se incluyen alteraciones leves del estado de ánimo y profundos trastornos que pueden variar tanto en intensidad como en duración. Pese a que se ha podido constatar que determinadas situaciones sociales pueden aumentar el consumo de determinadas drogas de precios asequibles, las consecuencias que producen en la sociedad hacen que sea necesaria una concienciación mayor sobre todos los aspectos que rodean su consumo. Existe un mercado legal e ilegal, con una parte de la población del cuerno de África y de la península arábiga bajo los efectos del Khat, que conlleva unas consecuencias graves para la salud.
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    • "It was also reported that 50% of Khat chewers develop oral mucosal keratosis (Hill and Gibson, 1987). Keratosis of the oral buccal mucosa is considered as a pre-cancerous lesion that may develop into oral cancer (Goldenberg et al., 2004). Recently, Ali et al. (2004) reported that 22.4% of Khat chewers had oral keratotic white lesions at the site of Khat chewing, while only 0.6% of non-chewers had white lesions in the oral cavity. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the sub-acute toxic effects of Khat (Catha edulis) on hemopoiesis and hematological indices of white albino rats. Two groups, each of 10 rats, were used. In the experimental group, a hydro-ethanol extract of C. edulis was administered orally to rats, daily, in single doses of 500 mg/kg body weight, for for weeks. The control group received equivalent amounts of normal saline. Our results show, for the first time, that oral administration of C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract caused significant derangement in hemopoiesis and in gross hematological indices in rats, characterized by macrocytic anemia and leucopenia. Our data show statistically significant decreases in total leukocytes count (TLC) in which, hemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc.), packed cell volume (PCV), and red cell count (RCC), accompanied by significant increases in mean cell volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelets count with no change in mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC). In peripheral blood smears (PBS) of treated rats, there were evidences of dyserythropoiesis- impaired hemoglobinization, macrocytosis, poikilocytosis and anisocytosis, and dysgranulopoiesis- giant forms, hypersegmented neutrophils and bizarre nuclear shapes. In conclusion, our results indicate that oral administration of a hydro-ethanol extract of C. edulis adversely affected blood cell formation and induced macrocytic anemia and leukopenia in rats. However, the exact mechanisms of these hematological changes produced by Khat are still in need for further studies.
    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 01/2014; 13(2):349. DOI:10.5897/AJB2013.13373 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    • "This study also found that 23% of chewers complained of difficulty in mouthopening , compared with only about 1% of non-chewers, and 10% of chewers had difficulty in swallowing solid food (Al-Kholani 2010). Khat has been shown to be a risk factor for oral cancer (Nasr & Khatri 2000; Soufi, Kameswaran & Malatani 1991), and khat chewers are more predisposed to develop oral mucosal keratosis (Goldenberg et al. 2004).The district hospital in Masalani does not provide dental services due to lack of equipment. Those in need of these services have to travel to seek the services of private clinics or visit traditional tooth extractors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Khat is widely consumed in Kenya. It contains cathinone, a psychoactive alkaloid, whose health effects are similar to those of amphetamine. A descriptive study was done among men in a remote Kenyan town on consumption of khat. We administered semi-structured questionnaires. Of those interviewed, 68% chewed khat, and of those who chewed, half did so on a daily basis. Most prefer to chew it in the company of their friends and age mates, accompanied by soda, sweet tea, and cigarettes. Those employed were three times more likely to chew khat compared to those unemployed (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.03-7.6). A plausible reason is that they have regular sources of income to buy khat. Most respondents were knowledgeable about the health effects of khat, with a third reporting mental health problems. The major social consequences of khat chewing reported were negligence of responsibility by men, family break-up, promiscuity, and impotence. The consumption of khat may increase in the near future, given that a high proportion of the males in this district are below 19 years. This cohort will gradually finish school and gain employment. There may be need to put in place health education programs and provide recreational facilities targeting this group and those already chewing khat in this resource-limited setting.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2013; 45(4):355-9. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2013.825516 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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