Habitual Risk Factors for Head and Neck Cancer

Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.02). 01/2005; 131(6):986-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.otohns.2004.02.035
Source: PubMed


Chronic tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are well-established risk factors for the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. There are, however, a variety of other habitual and culturally based activities that are less commonly seen in the Western world and that are also risks factors for the development of this type of cancer. In this era of globalization, many of these habits have now crossed borders and appear in various areas throughout the world. This article reviews habitual and social risk factors for cancer of the head and neck, excluding smoking and alcohol consumption. These factors include chewing tobacco and snuff, areca nut in its various forms, Khat leaves, and the drinking of Mate. EBM RATING: D.

15 Reads
  • Source
    • "La gente piensa que esta costumbre les hace mejores trabajadores. En las últimas décadas se ha extendido a otros países Africanos, a Europa , Australia y los Estados Unidos gracias a los inmigrantes de Yemen, Somalia y Etiopía (Goldenberg et al., 2004). Un estudio realizado en una comunidad rural etíope, encontró "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: El Khat o Catha Edulis Forsk, es un arbusto que se emplea por sus propiedades euforizantes y estimulantes del sistema nervioso central y por su capacidad para aliviar la fatiga, sin embargo, su consumo abusivo produce efectos adversos sobre las funciones cognitivas. En este artículo de revisión se resume el origen, la producción, farmacología, toxicología, neuropsicología y los aspectos psicosociales del consumo del khat en un intento por aportar el mayor conocimiento posible sobre este arbusto, sus propiedades y efectos. Además, se centra especial atención en los aspectos psicológicos y neuropsicológicos que produce, entre los que se incluyen alteraciones leves del estado de ánimo y profundos trastornos que pueden variar tanto en intensidad como en duración. Pese a que se ha podido constatar que determinadas situaciones sociales pueden aumentar el consumo de determinadas drogas de precios asequibles, las consecuencias que producen en la sociedad hacen que sea necesaria una concienciación mayor sobre todos los aspectos que rodean su consumo. Existe un mercado legal e ilegal, con una parte de la población del cuerno de África y de la península arábiga bajo los efectos del Khat, que conlleva unas consecuencias graves para la salud.
  • Source
    • "In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is also recognized as an important determinant for oropharyngeal cancer in a new group of nonsmoking, nondrinking younger adults who have shown increased incidence of this cancer [6, 7]. Other predisposing factors for HNSCC are exposure to radiation or environmental toxins, betel nut chewing, and immunosuppression [8]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of tumors with each subtype having a distinct histopathological and molecular profile. Most tumors share, to some extent, the same multistep carcinogenic pathways, which include a wide variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. Epigenetic alterations represent all changes in gene expression patterns that do not alter the actual DNA sequence. Recently, it has become clear that silencing of cancer related genes is not exclusively a result of genetic changes such as mutations or deletions, but it can also be regulated on epigenetic level, mostly by means of gene promoter hypermethylation. Results from recent studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns contain tumor-type-specific signatures, which could serve as biomarkers for clinical outcome in the near future. The topic of this review discusses gene promoter hypermethylation in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The main objective is to analyse the available data on gene promoter hypermethylation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) and to investigate their clinical significance as novel biomarkers in OSCC. Hypermethylation of both genes seems to possess predictive properties for several clinicopathological outcomes. We conclude that the methylation status of p16(INK4A) is definitely a promising candidate biomarker for predicting clinical outcome of OSCC, especially for recurrence-free survival.
    Disease markers 04/2014; 2014(11):260549. DOI:10.1155/2014/260549 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "It was also reported that 50% of Khat chewers develop oral mucosal keratosis (Hill and Gibson, 1987). Keratosis of the oral buccal mucosa is considered as a pre-cancerous lesion that may develop into oral cancer (Goldenberg et al., 2004). Recently, Ali et al. (2004) reported that 22.4% of Khat chewers had oral keratotic white lesions at the site of Khat chewing, while only 0.6% of non-chewers had white lesions in the oral cavity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the sub-acute toxic effects of Khat (Catha edulis) on hemopoiesis and hematological indices of white albino rats. Two groups, each of 10 rats, were used. In the experimental group, a hydro-ethanol extract of C. edulis was administered orally to rats, daily, in single doses of 500 mg/kg body weight, for for weeks. The control group received equivalent amounts of normal saline. Our results show, for the first time, that oral administration of C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract caused significant derangement in hemopoiesis and in gross hematological indices in rats, characterized by macrocytic anemia and leucopenia. Our data show statistically significant decreases in total leukocytes count (TLC) in which, hemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc.), packed cell volume (PCV), and red cell count (RCC), accompanied by significant increases in mean cell volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelets count with no change in mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC). In peripheral blood smears (PBS) of treated rats, there were evidences of dyserythropoiesis- impaired hemoglobinization, macrocytosis, poikilocytosis and anisocytosis, and dysgranulopoiesis- giant forms, hypersegmented neutrophils and bizarre nuclear shapes. In conclusion, our results indicate that oral administration of a hydro-ethanol extract of C. edulis adversely affected blood cell formation and induced macrocytic anemia and leukopenia in rats. However, the exact mechanisms of these hematological changes produced by Khat are still in need for further studies.
    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 01/2014; 13(2):349. DOI:10.5897/AJB2013.13373 · 0.57 Impact Factor
Show more