17 beta-Estradiol upregulates and activates WOX1/WWOXv1 and WOX2/WWOXv2 in vitro: potential role in cancerous progression of breast and prostate to a premetastatic state in vivo

Guthrie Research Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, 1 Guthrie Square, Sayre, PA 18840, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.56). 02/2005; 24(4):714-23. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1208124
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human WWOX gene encodes a proapoptotic WW domain-containing oxidoreductase WOX1 (also named WWOX, FOR2 or WWOXv1). Apoptotic and stress stimuli activate WOX1 via Tyr33 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. WOX1 possesses a tetrad NSYK motif in the C-terminal short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) domain, which may bind estrogen and androgen. Here, we determined that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) activated WOX1, p53 and ERK in COS7 fibroblasts, primary lung epithelial cells, and androgen receptor (AR)-negative prostate DU145 cells, but not in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast MCF7 cells. Androgen also activated WOX1 in the AR-negative DU145 cells. These observations suggest that sex hormone-mediated Tyr33 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of WOX1 is independent of ER and AR. Stress stimuli increase physical binding of p53 with WOX1 in vivo. We determined here that E(2) increased the formation of p53/WOX1 complex and their nuclear translocation in COS7 cells; however, nuclear translocation of this complex could not occur in MCF7 cells. By immunohistochemistry, we determined that progression of prostate from normal to hyperplasia, cancerous and metastatic stages positively correlate with upregulation and activation of WOX1 and WOX2 (FOR1/WWOXv2). In contrast, breast cancer development to a premetastatic state is associated with upregulation and Tyr33 phosphorylation of cytosolic WOX1 and WOX2, followed by significant downregulation or absent expression during metastasis. These Tyr33-phosphorylated proteins are mostly located in the mitochondria without translocating to the nuclei, which is comparable to those findings in cultured breast cancer cells. Together, sex steroid hormone-induced activation of WOX1 and WOX2 is independent of ER and AR, and this activation positively correlates with cancerous progression of prostate and breast to a premetastatic state.

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Available from: Nan-Shan Chang, Aug 03, 2015
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    • "The expression of WWOX is reduced or lost in many different cancers (Aqeilan et al., 2007c). Notably, it has been established that WWOX is inactivated in invasive breast carcinoma (Guler et al., 2004, 2005; Chang et al., 2005; Nunez et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2009). The decrease of WWOX expression is frequently associated with a worse clinical outcome for patients (Pluciennik et al., 2006; Hezova and Ehrmann JKolar 2007; Aqeilan et al., 2007a). "
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    ABSTRACT: The WWOX gene encodes a candidate tumor suppressor protein (WWOX) implicated in a variety of human diseases such as cancer. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of WWOX action, we investigated novel partners of this protein. Using the two-hybrid system and a coimmunoprecipitation assay, we observed a physical association between WWOX and the Dishevelled protein (Dvl) family signaling elements involved in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. We found that enforced WWOX expression inhibited, and inhibition of endogenous WWOX expression stimulated the transcriptional activity of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Inhibition of endogenous WWOX expression also enhanced the effect of Wnt-3a on beta-catenin stability. Moreover, we observed the sequestration of Dvl-2 wild type and Dvl-2NESm, a mutated form of Dvl-2 predominantly localized in the nucleus, in the cytoplasm compartment by WWOX. Our results indicate that WWOX is a novel inhibitor of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. WWOX would act, at least in part, by preventing the nuclear import of the Dvl proteins.
    Oncogene 06/2009; 28(28):2569-80. DOI:10.1038/onc.2009.120
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    • "It has therefore been suggested that WWOX might play a role in sex-steroid metabolism. Indeed, Chang and colleagues have shown that sex steroids upregulate and activate WWOX expression in vitro (Chang et al., 2005). Our preliminary investigation also indicates that targeted deletion of Wwox in mice leads to impaired steroidogenesis (unpublished observations). "
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    ABSTRACT: The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene is located at 16q23.1-16q23.2, a region that spans the second most common human fragile site, FRA16D. The WWOX protein contains two N-terminal WW domains and a central short chain oxidoreductase-like domain. In the last few years, considerable amount of data have shown inactivation of WWOX in a variety of human malignancies. Moreover, interacting partners have been identified biochemically that define, at least in part, the molecular mechanism of WWOX action. Recently, we demonstrated that targeted deletion of the Wwox gene in the mouse led to increased incidence of spontaneous and chemically induced tumor formation, thereby providing the first in vivo evidence that WWOX is a bona fide tumor suppressor. This review focuses on the most recent progress in understanding WWOX function as a tumor suppressor.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2007; 212(2):307-10. DOI:10.1002/jcp.21099
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of candidate tumor suppressor and proapoptotic WOX1 (also named WWOX, FOR, or WWOXv1) in UVB-induced apoptosis and formation of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Expression of WOX1 and family proteins (WWOX) in human primary cutaneous SCCs was examined by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and reverse transcription-PCR. UVB irradiation-induced WOX1 activation (Tyr33 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation), apoptosis, and cutaneous SCC formation were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulation of human WOX1, isoform WOX2, and Tyr33 phosphorylation occurred during normal keratinocyte differentiation before cornification and death. Interestingly, significant reduction of these proteins and Tyr33 phosphorylation was observed in nonmetastatic and metastatic cutaneous SCCs (P < 0.001), but without down-regulation of WWOX mRNA (P > 0.05 versus normal controls), indicating a translational blockade of WWOX mRNA to protein. During acute exposure of hairless mice to UVB, WOX1 was up-regulated and activated in epidermal cells in 24 hours. In parallel with the clinical findings in humans, chronic UVB-treated mice developed cutaneous SCCs in 3 months, with significant reduction of WOX1 and Tyr33 phosphorylation and, again, without down-regulation of WWOX mRNA. Human SCC-25 and HaCaT cells were transfected with small interfering RNA-targeting WOX1 and shown to resist UVB-induced WOX1 expression, activation, and apoptosis. WOX1 is essential for UVB-induced apoptosis and likely to be involved in the terminal differentiation of normal keratinocytes. During UVB-induced cutaneous SCC, epidermal cells have apparently prevented the apoptotic pressure from overexpressed WOX1 by shutting down the translation machinery for WWOX mRNA.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2005; 11(16):5769-77. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-2274
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