To determine the effect of growth hormone (GH) on body composition and motor development in infants and toddlers with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).
Twenty-nine subjects with PWS (4-37 months of age) were randomized to GH treatment (1mg/m 2 /day) or observation for 12 months. Percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry; energy expenditure was measured by deuterium dilution; and motor constructs of mobility (M) and stability (S) were assessed using the Toddler Infant Motor Evaluation (TIME).
GH-treated subjects, compared with controls, demonstrated decreased percent body fat (mean, 22.6% +/- 8.9% vs 28.5% +/- 7.9%; P < .001), increased lean body mass (mean, 9.82 +/- 1.9 kg vs 6.3 +/- 1.9 kg; P < .001), and increased height velocity Z scores (mean, 5. 0 +/- 1.8 vs 1.4 +/- 1.0; P < .001). Patients who began GH before 18 months of age showed higher mobility skill acquisition compared with controls within the same age range (mean increase in raw score, 284 +/- 105 vs 206 +/- 63; P < .05).
GH treatment of infants and toddlers with PWS for 12 months significantly improves body composition and when begun before 18 months of age increases mobility skill acquisition. These results suggest that GH therapy instituted early in life may lessen deterioration of body composition in PWS while also accelerating motor development.
"Infants with PWS are increasingly referred for GH treatment, prior to which PSG screening is recommended. The early use of GH is likely related to the early diagnosis of PWS and to recent studies suggesting benefits for treatment in infancy . Obesity related OSA remains the major focus when discussing SDB in pediatric PWS  and routine and follow-up PSG screening is recommended in consensus guidelines and expert reviews mostly in the context of GH treatment , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundSleep related disordered breathing (SDB) in pediatric Prader-Willi Syndrome is gaining increased attention due to the possible association of growth hormone therapy, SDB and sudden death. However data on the patterns of SDB and their management, particularly in infants in this population, is lacking.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to 1) describe patterns of SDB in growth hormone naive infants with PWS and the management of these disorders in our institution 2) Compare the patterns of sleep disorders between infants and children with PWS.Methods and DesignPolysomnograms of infants and children (0–18 years of age) with Prader-Willi Syndrome were reviewed. Age, sex, anthropometrics, sleep architecture, obstructive and central apnea indices and oxygen saturations were recorded. Data of infants with central sleep apnea treated with oxygen were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment. The main outcome measures were obstructive and central apnea indices on a polysomnogram.ResultsData of 44 patients, 23 under 2 years of age and 21 older children were included. Infants when compared with older children were more likely to experience central sleep apnea (43% vs. 5%; p = 0.003). In older children obstructive was significantly more prevalent than central sleep apnea. Supplemental oxygen was used to treat 9/23 infants with central sleep apnea. Oxygen therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the median central apnea index from 14 (5,68) to 1 (0,6; p = 0.008) events/hour and an improvement in the oxygen saturation nadir from 70% (52, 92) to 81% (64, 95; p = 0.080).ConclusionsCentral sleep apnea with associated oxygen desaturations is more prevalent in infants compared with older children with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Supplemental oxygen was efficacious in treating central sleep apnea in infants. Routine sleep surveillance for all children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and treatment with oxygen for central sleep apnea should be considered.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e101012. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101012 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Exclusion criteria for starting GH treatment include severe obesity, uncontrolled diabetes, untreated severe sleep apnea, active cancer, and active psychosis. Treatment can be started as early as 2 years, before the onset of obesity, although some data suggest starting treatment between 4 and 6 months of age31,32). A number of sudden deaths have been reported in severely obese PWS patients treated with GH30). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until 1985 growth hormone (GH) was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD). With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome, deletions/mutations of the SHOX gene, as well as in short children born small for gestational age and with idiopathic short stature. Available data from controlled trials indicate that GH treatment increases adult height in patients with Turner syndrome, in patients with chronic renal insufficiency, and in short children born small for gestational age. Patients with SHOX deficiency seem to respond to treatment similarly to Turner syndrome. GH treatment in children with idiopathic short stature produces a modest mean increase in adult height but the response in the individual patient is unpredictable. Uncontrolled studies indicate that GH treatment may be beneficial also in children with Noonan syndrome. In patients with Prader-Willi syndrome GH treatment normalizes growth and improves body composition and cognitive function. In any indication the response to GH seems correlated to the dose and the duration of treatment. GH treatment is generally safe with no major adverse effects being recorded in any condition.
"Randomized controlled trials of hGH therapy for 1 and 2 years duration have also shown benefits on development and cognition. In one study, patients started on hGH prior to age 18 months had a significant increase in mobility scores on developmental testing . Significant improvement in cognitive and motor development on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II has been reported with hGH therapy, with those infants having the lower baseline motor skills showing the greatest improvement . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder, caused by lack of expression of genes on the paternally inherited chromosome 15q11.2-q13. In infancy it is characterized by hypotonia with poor suck resulting in failure to thrive. As the child ages, other manifestations such as developmental delay, cognitive disability, and behavior problems become evident. Hypothalamic dysfunction has been implicated in many manifestations of this syndrome including hyperphagia, temperature instability, high pain threshold, sleep disordered breathing, and multiple endocrine abnormalities. These include growth hormone deficiency, central adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the recent literature investigating optimal screening and treatment of endocrine abnormalities associated with PWS, and provides an update on nutrition and food-related behavioral intervention. The standard of care regarding growth hormone therapy and surveillance for potential side effects, the potential for central adrenal insufficiency, evaluation for and treatment of hypogonadism in males and females, and the prevalence and screening recommendations for hypothyroidism and diabetes are covered in detail. PWS is a genetic syndrome in which early diagnosis and careful attention to detail regarding all the potential endocrine and behavioral manifestations can lead to a significant improvement in health and developmental outcomes. Thus, the important role of the provider caring for the child with PWS cannot be overstated.
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 08/2013; 2013(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1687-9856-2013-14
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