Hospital factors associated with splenectomy for splenic injury: a national perspective.
ABSTRACT The management of patients with splenic injury has shifted from routine splenectomy to attempts at splenic salvage. Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS), we assessed the patterns of care for splenic trauma. We hypothesized that the processes of care in urban and rural hospitals would differ.
Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictor variables associated with laparotomy and splenectomy from a national, population-based sample of inpatients (HCUP-NIS). Fourteen thousand nine hundred one patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification discharge diagnosis code of 865 were selected from the 1998 to 2000 HCUP-NIS data. Exclusion criteria included age greater than 80 years. Analyses were compared using all patients and excluding patients who died during the first 2 hospital days.
Eight thousand five hundred fifty-three patients were treated in urban teaching hospitals. Forty percent underwent a laparotomy and 28% underwent a splenectomy at that time. Another 4,461 patients were cared for in urban nonteaching hospitals. Of these, 46% had a laparotomy and 35% underwent a splenectomy. The remaining 1,887 patients were seen in rural hospitals. Forty-six percent had a laparotomy and 36% had a splenectomy. Patients in urban teaching hospitals had lower risk-adjusted odds of splenectomy in multivariate models controlling for confounders including overall injury severity. Overall splenic salvage increased from 1998 to 2000, primarily because of increased salvage rates among urban teaching hospitals.
The management of patients with splenic injury differs among urban teaching, urban nonteaching, and rural hospitals. Surgeons at urban teaching hospitals appear more willing to attempt splenic salvage by means of nonoperative management.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to review our 15-year experience in the treatment of blunt splenic injury in adults. Our hypothesis was that the implementation of a change in practice, with stress on splenic preservation and splenic artery embolization for the management of splenic injury, would result in improved splenic salvage rates without negatively affecting mortality rates. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on all consecutive adults with blunt splenic injury who were admitted to a Level One Trauma Center. The cohorts were defined by 2 separate 7.5-year periods (1991-1998 and 1998-2005). Six hundred twenty-five patients with blunt splenic trauma were identified; 403 patients who were treated from 1998 to 2005 were compared with 222 patients whose cases had been reviewed previously (1991 to 1998). The present cohort differed in age (35 vs 40 years; P < .001) and injury severity score (27 vs 21; P < .0001). Nonoperative treatment was implemented in 136 patients (61%) in the initial cohort and 344 patients (85%) in the present cohort. The frequency of splenic artery embolization increased from 2.7% to 22.6% (P < .001). The success of nonoperative management increased from 77% to 96% (P < .001); the splenic salvage rate for all patients improved from 57% to 88% (P < .0001). Hospital mortality rates decreased from 12% to 6% (P < .001), and the mean hospital length of stay decreased from 15 to 9 days (P < .001). These results demonstrate that the success of nonoperative management and the splenic preservation for blunt injury has improved over time. This improvement correlated with a greater use of splenic artery embolization.Surgery 10/2006; 140(4):625-31; discussion 631-2. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the training of surgical residents is often considered in national policy addressing complications and safety, the influence of resident intraoperative involvement on surgical outcomes has not been well studied. We identified 607,683 surgical cases from 234 hospitals from the 2006 to 2009 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). Outcomes were compared by resident involvement for all general and vascular cases as well as for specific general surgical procedures. After typical ACS NSQIP comorbidity risk adjustment and further adjustment for hospital teaching status and operative time in modeling, resident intraoperative involvement was associated with slightly increased morbidity when assessing overall general or vascular procedures (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.09), pancreatectomy or esophagectomy (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.45), and colorectal resections (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.22). In contrast, for mortality, resident intraoperative involvement was associated with reductions for overall general and vascular procedures (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99), colorectal resections (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.99), and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.95). Results were moderated somewhat after hierarchical modeling was performed to account for hospital-level variation, with mortality results no longer reaching significance (overall morbidity OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10, overall mortality OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.05). Based on risk-adjusted event rates, resident intraoperative involvement is associated with approximately 6.1 additional morbidity events but 1.4 fewer deaths per 1,000 general and vascular surgery procedures. Resident intraoperative participation is associated with slightly higher morbidity rates but slightly decreased mortality rates across a variety of procedures and is minimized further after taking into account hospital-level variation. These clinically small effects may serve to reassure patients and others that resident involvement in surgical care is safe and possibly protective with regard to mortality.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2011; 212(5):889-98. · 4.55 Impact Factor