Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Although insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2, among other factors, activate PI3K, there is little information on the relative roles of IRS-1and IRS-2 during aPKC activation by insulin action in specific cell types. Presently, we have used immortalized brown adipocytes in which either IRS-1 or IRS-2 has been knocked out by recombinant methods to examine IRS-1 and IRS-2 requirements for activation of aPKC. We have also used these adipocytes to see if IRS-1 and IRS-2 are required for activation of Cbl, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport and has been found to function upstream of both PI3K/aPKC and Crk during thiazolidinedione action in 3T3/L1 adipocytes [Miura et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 14335]. In brown adipocytes in which either IRS-1 or IRS-2 was knocked out, insulin-induced increases in aPKC activity and glucose transport were markedly diminished. These effects of insulin on aPKC and glucose transport were fully restored by retroviral-mediated expression of IRS-1 or IRS-2 in their respective knockout cells. Knockout of IRS-1 or IRS-2 also inhibited insulin-induced increases in Cbl binding to the p85 subunit of PI3K, which, along with IRS-1/2, may be required for activation of PI3K, aPKC, and glucose transport during insulin action in 3T3/L1 adipocytes. These findings provide evidence that directly links both IRS-1 and IRS-2 to aPKC activation in immortalized brown adipocytes, and further suggest that IRS-1 and IRS-2 are required for the activation of Cbl/PI3K during insulin action in these cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role using insulin signalling as a model system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In type 2-diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, the muscle, fat and liver become resistant to insulin, and recent developments place dysregulation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) expression and activation at the center of such defects. IRS1 and IRS2 are the major insulin receptor substrates leading to glucose homeostasis, and have distinct and overlapping roles in diverse organs. The majority of the published literature in this field suggests that IRS1 is the major substrate leading to stimulation of glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues, whereas in liver, IRS1 and IRS2 have complementary roles in insulin signaling and metabolism.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2006; 17(2):72-8. DOI:10.1016/j.tem.2006.01.005 · 9.39 Impact Factor
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