Correlations among critical closing pressure, pulsatility index and cerebrovascular resistance.
ABSTRACT We attempted to explore the relationships among critical closing pressure (CrCP), resistance-area product (RAP) and traditional resistance indices of cerebral hemodynamics. Twenty healthy volunteers were studied. Blood pressure was obtained with servo-controlled plethysmography. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was monitored by transcranial Doppler. Hemodynamic changes were induced by hyperventilation and by 5% CO(2) inhalation. Beat-to-beat CrCP and RAP values were extracted by linear regression analysis of instantaneous arterial blood pressure (ABP) and CBFV tracings. Gosling's pulsatility index (PI) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) were calculated. RAP correlated well with CVR at rest and during provocative tests (p = 0.006 approximately <0.001). There was no correlation among CrCP, CVR and PI. The changes in CVR correlated with those in RAP (p = 0.008 for the 5% CO(2) test and p = 0.014 for the hyperventilation test). The changes in PI and CrCP showed significant correlation (p = 0.004 for the 5% CO(2) test and p = 0.003 for the hyperventilation test). RAP reliably reflected cerebrovascular resistance. The changes in CrCP were valuable in assessing cerebrovascular regulation. Estimating changes in CrCP and RAP provided better understanding of the nature of cerebrovascular regulation.
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ABSTRACT: During the 1990s, Central Asia emerged as an idiom for the uncertainty pervading the post-Cold War climate of global life. This paper therefore queries the intertwining of the region in world politics and the ways in which the dynamics of international affairs affect Central Asia. In this respect, the investigation explores the scope and connotations of the “new Central Asia” label. Its framing provides a context for the conceptual engagement with the Central Asian agency of international actors. This assessment details the perception of a regional power vacuum and the emergence of awkward statehood as key contributing factors to the construction of Central Asia as a permissive environment for external agency. Consequently, the confrontation with the proliferation of “actorness” in Central Asia accounts for the dynamics of the “new great game” and the patterns of “hegemonic fragmegration” in the region.Journal of Eurasian Studies 01/2011; 2(1):21-29.
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ABSTRACT: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) pulsatility index (PI) has traditionally been interpreted as a descriptor of distal cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). We sought to evaluate the relationship between PI and CVR in situations, where CVR increases (mild hypocapnia) and decreases (plateau waves of intracranial pressure-ICP). Recordings from patients with head-injury undergoing monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP), ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and TCD assessed cerebral blood flow velocities (FV) were analyzed. The Gosling pulsatility index (PI) was compared between baseline and ICP plateau waves (n = 20 patients) or short term (30-60 min) hypocapnia (n = 31). In addition, a modeling study was conducted with the "spectral" PI (calculated using fundamental harmonic of FV) resulting in a theoretical formula expressing the dependence of PI on balance of cerebrovascular impedances. PI increased significantly (p < 0.001) while CVR decreased (p < 0.001) during plateau waves. During hypocapnia PI and CVR increased (p < 0.001). The modeling formula explained more than 65% of the variability of Gosling PI and 90% of the variability of the "spectral" PI (R = 0.81 and R = 0.95, respectively). TCD pulsatility index can be easily and quickly assessed but is usually misinterpreted as a descriptor of CVR. The mathematical model presents a complex relationship between PI and multiple haemodynamic variables.Neurocritical Care 02/2012; 17(1):58-66. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) are associated with a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during hypocapnia and an increase in CBF during hypercapnia. However, the effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral arterial compliance (Ca) are unknown. We assessed the changes in Ca in 20 normal subjects using monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). Cerebral arterial blood volume (CaBV) was extracted from CBFV. Ca was defined as the ratio between the pulse amplitudes of CaBV (AMPCaBV ) and ABP (AMPABP). All parameters were recorded during normo-, hyper-, and hypocapnia. During hypocapnia, Ca was significantly lower than during normocapnia (.10±.04 vs. .17±.06; P<.001) secondary to a decrease in AMPCaBV (1.3±.4 vs. 1.9±.5; P<.001) and a concomitant increase in AMPABP (13.8±3.4 vs. 11.6±1.7 mmHg; P<.001). During hypercapnia, there was no change in Ca compared with normocapnia. Ca was inversely correlated with the cerebrovascular resistance during hypo- (R2=0.86; P<.001), and hypercapnia (R2=0.61; P<.001). Using a new mathematical model, we have described a reduction of Ca during hypocapnia. Further studies are needed to determine whether Ca may be an independent predictor of outcome in pathological conditions.Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 11/2009; 21(2):121-5. · 3.36 Impact Factor