CYP superfamily perturbation by diflubenzuron or acephate in different tissues of CD1 mice.
ABSTRACT This work aimed to investigate whether the insecticide acephate (125 or 250 mg/kg b.w.) or diflubenzuron (752 or 1075 mg/kg b.w.), two of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, impairs CYP-linked murine metabolism in liver, kidney and lung microsomes after repeated (daily, for three consecutive days) i.p. administration. The regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of testosterone was used as multibiomarker of different CYP isoforms. Both gender and tissue specific effects were observed. Lung was the most responsive tissue to induction by lower diflubenzuron dose, as exemplified by the marked increase of testosterone 7alpha-hydroxylation (CYP2A) (up to 13-fold) in males. Higher dose produced a generalized inactivation. At the lower dose acephate induced 6beta- (CYP3A1/2, liver) as well as 2beta- (CYP2B1/2, kidney) hydroxylase activities ( approximately 5 and approximately 4-fold increase, respectively) in males. In females, a marked suppression of the various hydroxylations was observed. At 250 mg/kg of acephate, animals did not survive. Induction of the most affected isoforms was sustained by immunoblotting analysis. Corresponding human CYP modulations might disrupt normal physiological functions related to these enzymes. Furthermore, the co-mutagenic and promoting potential of these pesticides, phenomena linked to CYP upregulation (e.g. increased bioactivation of ubiquitous pollutants and generation of oxygen free radicals) are of concern for a more complete definition of their overall toxicological potential.
- SourceAvailable from: Wissem Mnif
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Insecticides have a pivotal role in our lives, not only for crop protection in agriculture, but also to avoid the spreading of harmful pests causing human diseases such as malaria. Due to economic and medical reasons, the design of effective agents that control these pests is quite an important task in agrochemical science and in the industrial sector. Nevertheless, the non-restricted use of highly toxic insecticides for several decades has provoked negative effects in the environment and the poisoning of non-targeted species. For these reasons, the development of selective and harmless insecticides is needed. A short overview of some of the recent advances in the chemistry of insecticides is presented, with a highlight of their greenness compared with classical insecticides. Synthesis, mode of action and environmental profile of pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators will be described. Furthermore, the use of biological insecticides such as spinosyns, azadirachtin, and Bacillus thuringiensis as green alternatives for synthetic insecticides will also be reviewed.Green Chemistry 01/2005; 7(6). · 6.83 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined the occurrence in wastewater of 11 aromatic biocides, pesticides and degradates, and their fate during passage through US treatment plants, as well as the chemical mass contained in sewage sludge (biosolids) destined for land application. Analyte concentrations in wastewater influent, effluent and sludge from 25 facilities in 18 US states were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray (tandem) mass spectrometry. Dichlorocarbanilide, fipronil, triclocarban, and triclosan were found consistently in all sample types. Dichlorophene, hexachlorophene, and tetrachlorocarbanilide were detected infrequently only, and concentrations of the phenyl urea pesticides diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and linuron were below the limit of detection in all matrixes. Median concentrations (+/-95% confidence interval) of quantifiable compounds in influent ranged from 4.2 +/- 0.8 microg L(-1) for triclocarban to 0.03 +/- 0.01 microg L(-1) for fipronil. Median concentrations in effluent were highest for triclocarban and triclosan (0.23 +/- 0.08 and 0.07 +/- 0.04 microg L(-1), respectively). Median aqueous-phase removal efficiencies (+/-95% CI) of activated sludge treatment plants decreased in the order of: triclosan (96 +/- 2%) > triclocarban (87 +/- 7%) > dichlorocarbanilide (55 +/- 20%) > fipronil (18 +/- 22%). Median concentrations of organohalogens were typically higher in anaerobically than in aerobically digested sludges, and peaked at 27 600 +/- 9600 and 15 800 +/- 8200 microg kg(-1) for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. Mass balances obtained for three primary pesticides in six activated sludge treatment plants employing anaerobic digestion suggested a decreasing overall persistence from fipronil (97 +/- 70%) to triclocarban (87 +/- 29%) to triclosan (28 +/- 30%). Nationwide release of the investigated organohalogens to agricultural land via municipal sludge recycling and into surface waters is estimated to total 258 000 +/- 110 00 kg year(-1) (mean +/- 95% confidence interval), with most of this mass derived from antimicrobial consumer products of daily use. This study addresses some of the data gaps identified by the National Research Council in its 2002 study on standards and practices of biosolids application on land.Journal of Environmental Monitoring 12/2009; 11(12):2207-15. · 2.09 Impact Factor