To characterize the central corneal thickness (CCT) of Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients in a multiethnic glaucoma practice.
Retrospective study (chart review).
Glaucomatous (n = 600) and nonglaucomatous (n = 201) eyes of 801 patients examined in a San Francisco glaucoma clinic from June 2002 to April 2004 who met inclusion criteria were included in the study. The 6 racial (ethnic) groups represented in the study were Caucasian (n = 186, 23.2%), Chinese (n = 157, 19.6%), Japanese (n = 121, 15.1%), Hispanic (n = 116, 14.5%), Filipino (n = 114, 14.2%), and African American (n = 107, 13.4%).
Central corneal thickness was measured by means of ultrasound pachymetry in Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American participants with glaucomatous and normal eyes. The relationship between CCT and race was investigated using multivariate regression analyses, controlling for confounders. One eye of each of 801 participants was included for analysis.
Correlation of mean CCT with race, glaucoma diagnosis, age, spherical equivalent, gender, and history of ocular surgery.
The mean CCT of all participants was 542.9 mum. Central corneal thicknesses of Chinese (555.6 microm), Caucasian (550.4 microm), Filipino (550.6 microm), and Hispanic (548.1 microm) participants did not significantly differ. The CCT of Japanese participants (531.7 microm) was significantly less than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, and Hispanics (all, P< or =0.001) and greater than that of African Americans (P = 0.03). African Americans had a CCT (521.0.0 microm) less than that of all races (P< or =0.05). Glaucoma suspects and patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX), and chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) had corneas significantly thinner than those of normal participants (P< or =0.004), whereas ocular hypertensives had significantly thicker corneas (P<0.0001). Among all participants, decreasing values of CCT were significantly related to older age (P<0.01). Less negative or more positive refractive errors, gender, and history of ocular surgery were not associated with changes in CCT (P = 0.38, P = 0.50, and P = 0.97, respectively).
Studies examining individual Asian subpopulations in isolation suggest that differences in CCT may exist among different Asian groups. The results of this study indicate that CCT does, in fact, vary among Asian subpopulations; Japanese have thinner corneas than Chinese and Filipinos. Caucasians, Chinese, Hispanics, and Filipinos have comparable CCT measurements, whereas the corneas of African Americans are significantly thinner. Additionally, older individuals; glaucoma suspects; and participants with NTG, POAG, PEX, and CACG have thinner corneas. Ocular hypertensives, however, have thicker corneas.
"Studies have investigated mean values for CCT among different populations throughout the world. There are reasonable data showing differences in CCT between various ethnic groups.14,15 The mean CCT in our study (544.6 μm) was similar to that of 545.2 μm reported for the Caucasian population by Nemesure et al and within the limits for mean CCT reported by other studies, ie, 520–579 μm.6,16–18 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The purpose of this study was to estimate mean central corneal thickness (CCT) and determine whether there are any correlations between CCT, age, and sex in the adult Lithuanian population.
A total of 1,650 Caucasians of Lithuanian origin (aged 18–89 years) comprising 688 (41.7%) men and 962 (58.3%) women were examined. Subjects were stratified by age into seven groups. CCT was measured using ultrasonic pachymetry. Correlations between CCT, age, and sex were sought.
Mean (± standard deviation) CCT for both eyes was 544.6±30.5 μm. Mean CCT was 545.2±30.5 μm in the left eye and 544.6±30.5 μm in the right eye, and was 545.0±25.6 μm in men and 544.4±33.5 μm in women. Mean CCT was 550.8±35.7 μm in subjects aged 18–29 years, 557.5±27.6 μm in those aged 30–39 years, 551.3±31.4 μm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.0±31.4 μm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.2±31.6 μm in those aged 60–79 years, 535.1±27.8 μm in those aged 70–79 years, and 530.1±16.8 μm in those aged 80–89 years. No statistically significant difference in CCT was found between the sexes (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in subjects aged 18–29 years; men had higher CCT than women (P<0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CCT and age (r=-0.263, P<0.05) that was stronger in men (r=-0.406, P<0.05) than in women (r=-0.118, P<0.05).
The mean CCT in adult Lithuanians was 544.6±30.5 μm, of the left eye 545.2±30.5 μm and of the right – 544.6±30.5 μm. CCT of the right eye was equal to the CCT of both eyes. Mean CCT was 545.0±25.6 μm in men and 544.4±33.5 μm in women. Young men tended to have higher CCT than women. CCT decreases over the lifetime, meaning that older people have thinner corneas. CCT’s dependence on age is stronger in men.
"The assumption that the African origin itself might have an effect on the intraoperative swelling behavior is speculative. Apart from the awareness that African corneas are thinner than Caucasians,2021 there are no other relevant differences described in the literature. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pilot investigation to transfer the established corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) procedure in European eyes into clinically affected African eyes and to optimize the treatment by adapting the riboflavin composition.
CXL was performed in 15 eyes (11 patients) with advanced stages of keratoconus in the Eye Clinic of Bafoussam in the West Region of Cameroon. The following six riboflavin compositions with different portions of active swelling additives were applied: Solution 1 (0.5% methylhydroxypropylcellulose [MHPC]), solution 2 (1.0% MHPC), solution 3 (1.7% MHPC), solution 4 (5% dextran), solution 5 (10% dextran) and solution 6 (no active swelling ingredient). The central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured by ultrasound pachymetry before and after de-epithelialization and at least every 10 min during CXL.
THE APPLICATION OF THE RIBOFLAVIN SOLUTIONS RESULTED IN THE FOLLOWING MEAN FINAL CCT VALUES: 172 ± 15% using solution 1 (60 min/n = 5); 183 ± 8% using solution 2 (60 min/n = 5); 170% using solution 3 (60 min/n = 1); 80% using solution 4 (45 min/n = 1); 99% using solution 5 (45 min/n = 1) and 150 ± 13% using solution 6 (50 min/n = 2).
The combination of riboflavin compositions with swelling and stabilizing effects on the corneal stroma seems necessary in African eyes with advanced keratoconus. Further studies are required to confirm these primary results.
Middle East African journal of ophthalmology 03/2014; 21(1):66-71. DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.124103
"On the other hand, the cross-sectional finding of the Barbados Eye Study showed an association between thinner corneas and increasing age. Aghaian et al. showed a 3-μm decrease in CCT per decade of age in a cross-sectional study of multiracial patients. Foster et al. found a 5-6 μm decrease in CCT per decade of age in a cross-sectional study of Mongolian patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To investigate the longitudinal change in central corneal thickness (CCT) over 3 years in patients with glaucoma.
Materials and Methods:
The Chennai Glaucoma Follow-up Study, an offshoot of the Chennai Glaucoma Study, was designed to evaluate the progression of glaucoma. A cohort of participants in the Chennai Glaucoma Study that were suffering from glaucoma or were at a higher risk for glaucoma underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation at the base hospital at 6-month intervals during the years 2004 to 2007. The CCT (average of 10 readings) was measured between 11 am and 1 pm on any given day using an ultrasonic pachymeter. Patients with a history of ocular surgery, corneal disease and usage of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor were excluded. No patient was a contact lens wearer.
One hundred and ninety-six patients (84 male, 112 female) met the inclusion criteria. We analyzed data from the right eye. The mean age of the patients was 59.97 ± 9.06 years. Fifty-nine (30.1%) of the patients were diabetic. The mean change in CCT (CCT at first patient visit – CCT at last patient visit) was 3.46 ± 7.63 μm. The mean change in CCT was 0.75 μm per year (R2 = 0.00). Age, gender, intraocular pressure at the first patient visit and diabetic status had no significant influence on the magnitude of change in CCT.
A carefully obtained CCT reading by a trained examiner need not be repeated for at least 3 years as long as the ocular and systemic factors known to affect the measurement of CCT are constant.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2013; 61(10). DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119338 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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