Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van CE. Brief communication: sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med 141, 846-850

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 16.1). 01/2005; 141(11):846-50.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Total sleep deprivation in rodents and in humans has been associated with hyperphagia. Over the past 40 years, self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by almost 2 hours.
To determine whether partial sleep curtailment, an increasingly prevalent behavior, alters appetite regulation.
Randomized, 2-period, 2-condition crossover clinical study.
Clinical Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
12 healthy men (mean age [+/-SD], 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index [+/-SD], 23.6 +/- 2.0 kg/m2).
Daytime profiles of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and subjective ratings of hunger and appetite.
2 days of sleep restriction and 2 days of sleep extension under controlled conditions of caloric intake and physical activity.
Sleep restriction was associated with average reductions in the anorexigenic hormone leptin (decrease, 18%; P = 0.04), elevations in the orexigenic factor ghrelin (increase, 28%; P < 0.04), and increased hunger (increase, 24%; P < 0.01) and appetite (increase, 23%; P = 0.01), especially for calorie-dense foods with high carbohydrate content (increase, 33% to 45%; P = 0.02).
The study included only 12 young men and did not measure energy expenditure.
Short sleep duration in young, healthy men is associated with decreased leptin levels, increased ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.

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Available from: Karine Spiegel, Aug 26, 2015
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    • "The recommended duration of night sleep for adults, a necessary activity which is " naturally unavoidable " , is 8 hours per night; a duration which could avoid neurobehavioral declines (Van Dongen et al. 2003). Less than 6 hours of daily night sleep for four or more continuous nights may result in negative effects on cognitive and physiological functions (Belenky et al. 2003), and interfere with stable appetite (Spiegel et al. 2004), immune regulation (Maurovich-Horvat et al. 2008; Krueger et al. 2011; AlDabal and BaHammam 2011), and metabolic and endocrine functions (Maurovich-Horvat et al. 2008; AlDabal and BaHammam 2011). Sleep deprivation was found to lead to depression and anxiety in early childhood (El-Sheikh and Arsiwalla 2011). "
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    • "Three main mechanisms have been proposed to explain this link between short sleep and obesity (Knutson et al. 2007). First, sleep restriction and habitually short sleep durations increase hunger or appetite (Spiegel et al. 2004). Second, sleep restriction has been associated with irregular food intake, excessive use of condiments, low consumption of vegetables, and a sedentary lifestyle (Sivak 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has become a major health risk in industrialized countries, with disturbed sleep identified as a correlate. This study used data drawn from Taiwan's 2005 Social Development Trend Survey on Health and Safety and the propensity-score-matching method to shed light on gender-specific associations between sleep problems and obesity among 24,113 adults aged 20-64 years. The average increase in obesity prevalence among respondents with disrupted sleep was 1.85 percent, as compared to those who did not report disrupted sleep, with similar psycho-social attributes. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity among those who reported restless sleep was increased by an average of 1.40 percent compared to those who did not report restless sleep with similar psycho-social attributes. We also found gender-specific vulnerability to different types of sleep problems. Among men who reported disrupted sleep, we found a 3.12 percent increase in the prevalence of obesity. Among women exposed to restless sleep, the increase in obesity prevalence was 1.84 percent. The observed gender difference in the prevalence of increase of obesity may be attributed to gender-specific behavioral responses to poor sleep. With poor sleep, men may respond to hunger by overeating; women may respond by physical inactivity. Both can contribute to an elevated risk of obesity.
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    • "Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that disturbed-and short periods of sleep are a risk factor for obesity (Moraes et al., 2013), diabetes (Togeiro et al., 2013), cardiovascular disease (Rod et al., 2014) and metabolic syndrome (Drager et al., 2013). Controlled laboratory studies have also shown several behavioral and physiological alterations that seem to favor the induction of metabolic syndrome (Chaput et al., 2008; Van Cauter et al., 2008), including reduction of leptin and increase of ghrelin levels (Spiegel et al., 1999, 2004), which may explain the augmented caloric intake (Beebe et al., 2013; Hogenkamp et al., 2013) and craving for carbohydrate-and fat-rich foods observed in volunteers (Nedeltcheva et al., 2009; Spiegel et al., 2004), possibly reflecting a homeostatic and hedonic response to this situation (Taheri et al., 2004). In addition , increased cortisol levels and sympathetic tonus (Spiegel et al., 1999), reduced glucose clearance and increased insulin resistance (Donga et al., 2010) have been found in short-term sleep restriction laboratory studies. "
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