Cauter E: Brief communication: Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med 2004

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.81). 01/2005; 141(11):846-50.
Source: PubMed


Total sleep deprivation in rodents and in humans has been associated with hyperphagia. Over the past 40 years, self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by almost 2 hours.
To determine whether partial sleep curtailment, an increasingly prevalent behavior, alters appetite regulation.
Randomized, 2-period, 2-condition crossover clinical study.
Clinical Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
12 healthy men (mean age [+/-SD], 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index [+/-SD], 23.6 +/- 2.0 kg/m2).
Daytime profiles of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and subjective ratings of hunger and appetite.
2 days of sleep restriction and 2 days of sleep extension under controlled conditions of caloric intake and physical activity.
Sleep restriction was associated with average reductions in the anorexigenic hormone leptin (decrease, 18%; P = 0.04), elevations in the orexigenic factor ghrelin (increase, 28%; P < 0.04), and increased hunger (increase, 24%; P < 0.01) and appetite (increase, 23%; P = 0.01), especially for calorie-dense foods with high carbohydrate content (increase, 33% to 45%; P = 0.02).
The study included only 12 young men and did not measure energy expenditure.
Short sleep duration in young, healthy men is associated with decreased leptin levels, increased ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.

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    • "Numerous studies have demonstrated an inverse correlation between sleep duration and adiposity or obesity risk in children and adults [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. Possible mechanisms include decreased leptin and increased ghrelin associated with sleep deprivation [11], leading to increased caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure, both of which contribute to obesity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aim Short sleep duration is thought to be a factor contributing to increased body mass index (BMI) in both school-age children and adults. Our aim was to determine whether sleep duration associates with growth outcomes during the first two years of life. Study design Participants included 899 children enrolled in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study. Anthropometric data (weight and body length) and parental reports of sleep duration were collected at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. A mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate the longitudinal association of BMI and body length with sleep duration. In subgroup analyses, effects of ethnicity (Chinese, Indian, and Malay) and short sleep at three months of age (≤12 h per day) were examined on subsequent growth measures. Results In the overall cohort, sleep duration was significantly associated with body length (β = 0.028, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.002–0.053, p = 0.033), but not BMI, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Only in Malay children, shorter sleep was associated with a higher BMI (β = −0.042, 95% CI −0.071 to −0.012, p = 0.005) and shorter body length (β = 0.079, 95% CI 0.030–0.128, p = 0.002). In addition, shorter sleep was associated with a higher BMI and shorter body length in children who slept ≤12 h per day at three months of age. Conclusion The association between sleep duration and growth outcomes begins in infancy. The small but significant relationship between sleep and growth anthropometric measures in early life might be amplified in later childhood.
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    • "These evidences have revealed that insufficient sleep and sleep fragmentation alter physiological mechanisms such as diminished brain glucose utilization [30] [31]; increased sympathetic nervous system activity; and inhibited insulin secretion and promoted insulin resistance [4]. On the other hand, there are evidences that increased hunger hormone (ghrelin) levels, decreased leptin levels [32], and increased systemic inflammatory response are linked to insulin resistance [33] and are suggested underlying pathophysiology in the developments of prediabetes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. It is known that sleep has a major role in the regulation of endocrine functions and glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the sleep pattern is affected at or prior to the onset of diabetes, among those with prediabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep patterns and prediabetes in Qazvin, Iran. Methods. A representative sample of residents of Qazvin was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Plasma glucose level and sleep quality were measured cross-sectionally as well as demographic characteristics. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and prediabetes. Results. Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.1 years. Of 958, 474 (49.47%) were female. Poor sleep quality was associated with 2.197-fold increased risk of prediabetes after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. This study provides evidences that subjects with poor sleep quality are more likely to develop prediabetes than people with good sleep quality.
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    • "The recommended duration of night sleep for adults, a necessary activity which is " naturally unavoidable " , is 8 hours per night; a duration which could avoid neurobehavioral declines (Van Dongen et al. 2003). Less than 6 hours of daily night sleep for four or more continuous nights may result in negative effects on cognitive and physiological functions (Belenky et al. 2003), and interfere with stable appetite (Spiegel et al. 2004), immune regulation (Maurovich-Horvat et al. 2008; Krueger et al. 2011; AlDabal and BaHammam 2011), and metabolic and endocrine functions (Maurovich-Horvat et al. 2008; AlDabal and BaHammam 2011). Sleep deprivation was found to lead to depression and anxiety in early childhood (El-Sheikh and Arsiwalla 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon, which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency, and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement in alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review were to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic from both neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives and make recommendations for future researches.
    Journal of Religion and Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10943-015-0093-7 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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