Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van CE. Brief communication: sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med 141, 846-850

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.81). 01/2005; 141(11):846-50.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Total sleep deprivation in rodents and in humans has been associated with hyperphagia. Over the past 40 years, self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by almost 2 hours.
To determine whether partial sleep curtailment, an increasingly prevalent behavior, alters appetite regulation.
Randomized, 2-period, 2-condition crossover clinical study.
Clinical Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
12 healthy men (mean age [+/-SD], 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index [+/-SD], 23.6 +/- 2.0 kg/m2).
Daytime profiles of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and subjective ratings of hunger and appetite.
2 days of sleep restriction and 2 days of sleep extension under controlled conditions of caloric intake and physical activity.
Sleep restriction was associated with average reductions in the anorexigenic hormone leptin (decrease, 18%; P = 0.04), elevations in the orexigenic factor ghrelin (increase, 28%; P < 0.04), and increased hunger (increase, 24%; P < 0.01) and appetite (increase, 23%; P = 0.01), especially for calorie-dense foods with high carbohydrate content (increase, 33% to 45%; P = 0.02).
The study included only 12 young men and did not measure energy expenditure.
Short sleep duration in young, healthy men is associated with decreased leptin levels, increased ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.

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Available from: Karine Spiegel, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "These evidences have revealed that insufficient sleep and sleep fragmentation alter physiological mechanisms such as diminished brain glucose utilization [30] [31]; increased sympathetic nervous system activity; and inhibited insulin secretion and promoted insulin resistance [4]. On the other hand, there are evidences that increased hunger hormone (ghrelin) levels, decreased leptin levels [32], and increased systemic inflammatory response are linked to insulin resistance [33] and are suggested underlying pathophysiology in the developments of prediabetes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. It is known that sleep has a major role in the regulation of endocrine functions and glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the sleep pattern is affected at or prior to the onset of diabetes, among those with prediabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep patterns and prediabetes in Qazvin, Iran. Methods. A representative sample of residents of Qazvin was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Plasma glucose level and sleep quality were measured cross-sectionally as well as demographic characteristics. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and prediabetes. Results. Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.1 years. Of 958, 474 (49.47%) were female. Poor sleep quality was associated with 2.197-fold increased risk of prediabetes after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. This study provides evidences that subjects with poor sleep quality are more likely to develop prediabetes than people with good sleep quality.
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    • "The recommended duration of night sleep for adults, a necessary activity which is " naturally unavoidable " , is 8 hours per night; a duration which could avoid neurobehavioral declines (Van Dongen et al. 2003). Less than 6 hours of daily night sleep for four or more continuous nights may result in negative effects on cognitive and physiological functions (Belenky et al. 2003), and interfere with stable appetite (Spiegel et al. 2004), immune regulation (Maurovich-Horvat et al. 2008; Krueger et al. 2011; AlDabal and BaHammam 2011), and metabolic and endocrine functions (Maurovich-Horvat et al. 2008; AlDabal and BaHammam 2011). Sleep deprivation was found to lead to depression and anxiety in early childhood (El-Sheikh and Arsiwalla 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon, which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency, and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement in alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review were to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic from both neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives and make recommendations for future researches.
    Journal of Religion and Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10943-015-0093-7 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Three main mechanisms have been proposed to explain this link between short sleep and obesity (Knutson et al. 2007). First, sleep restriction and habitually short sleep durations increase hunger or appetite (Spiegel et al. 2004). Second, sleep restriction has been associated with irregular food intake, excessive use of condiments, low consumption of vegetables, and a sedentary lifestyle (Sivak 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has become a major health risk in industrialized countries, with disturbed sleep identified as a correlate. This study used data drawn from Taiwan's 2005 Social Development Trend Survey on Health and Safety and the propensity-score-matching method to shed light on gender-specific associations between sleep problems and obesity among 24,113 adults aged 20-64 years. The average increase in obesity prevalence among respondents with disrupted sleep was 1.85 percent, as compared to those who did not report disrupted sleep, with similar psycho-social attributes. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity among those who reported restless sleep was increased by an average of 1.40 percent compared to those who did not report restless sleep with similar psycho-social attributes. We also found gender-specific vulnerability to different types of sleep problems. Among men who reported disrupted sleep, we found a 3.12 percent increase in the prevalence of obesity. Among women exposed to restless sleep, the increase in obesity prevalence was 1.84 percent. The observed gender difference in the prevalence of increase of obesity may be attributed to gender-specific behavioral responses to poor sleep. With poor sleep, men may respond to hunger by overeating; women may respond by physical inactivity. Both can contribute to an elevated risk of obesity.
    Women & Health 02/2015; 55(2). DOI:10.1080/03630242.2014.979965 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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