Decreased EEG synchronization in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.
ABSTRACT The hypothesis of a functional disconnection of neuro-cognitive networks in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Dementia was investigated using baseline resting EEG data. EEG databases from New York (264 subjects) and Stockholm (155 subjects), including healthy controls and patients with varying degrees of cognitive decline or Alzheimer Dementia were analyzed using Global Field Synchronization (GFS), a novel measure of global EEG synchronization. GFS reflects the global amount of phase-locked activity at a given frequency by a single number; it is independent of the recording reference and of implicit source models. Patients showed decreased GFS values in Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands, and increased GFS values in the Delta band, confirming the hypothesized disconnection syndrome. The results are discussed within the framework of current knowledge about the functional significance of the affected frequency bands.
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) and coherence of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Here we tested the hypothesis that these two variables could be related. We investigated VMR and coherence of resting state EEG rhythms in nine normal elderly (Nold) and in 10 amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded at baseline pre-CO2 (ambient air, 2min), during 7% CO2/air mixture inhalation (hypercapnia, 90s) and post-CO2 (ambient air, 2min) conditions. Simultaneous frontal bilateral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was performed to assess VMR by cortical oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes. EEG coherence across all electrodes was computed at delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (20-30Hz) and gamma (30-40Hz) bands. In Nold subjects, 'total coherence' of EEG across all frequency bands and electrode pairs decreased during hypercapnia, with full recovery during post-CO2. Total coherence resulted lower in pre-CO2 and post-CO2 and presented poor reactivity during CO2 inhalation in MCI patients compared with Nold subjects. Hypercapnia increased oxy-haemoglobin and decreased deoxy-haemoglobin concentrations in both groups. Furthermore, the extent of changes in these variables during CO2 challenge was correlated with the EEG coherence, as a reflection of neurovascular coupling. Hypercapnia induced normal frontal VMR that was detected by NIRS in both Nold and amnesic MCI groups, while it produced a reactivity of global functional coupling of resting state EEG rhythms only in the Nold group. In amnesic MCI patients, global EEG functional coupling is basically low in amplitude and does not react to hypercapnia.Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that both healthy and pathological aging induces alterations in the co-operative capacity of neuronal populations in the brain. Both compensatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms contribute to neurophysiological synchronization patterns, which provide a valuable marker for age-related cognitive decline. In this study, we propose that neuroplasticity-based training may facilitate coherent interaction of distant brain regions and consequently enhance cognitive performance in elderly people. If this true, this would make neurophysiological synchronization a valid outcome measure to assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent or delay age-related cognitive decline. The present study aims at providing an objective, synchronization-based tool to assess cognitive and/or physical interventions, adopting the notion of Relative Wavelet Entropy. This mathematical model employs a robust and parameter-free synchronization metric. By using data mining techniques, a distance value was computed for all participants so as to quantify the proximity of their individual profile to the mean group synchronization increase. In support of our hypothesis, results showed a significant increase in synchronization, for four electrode pairs, in the intervention group as compared to the active control group. It is concluded that the novel introduction of neurophysiological synchronization features could be used as a valid and reliable outcome measure; while the distance-based analysis could provide a reliable means of evaluating individual benefits.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 01/2014; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG) could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls) were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signal was first decomposed into delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma frequency bands. The relative power of each given band/sum of power and the coherence of waves from different brain areas were calculated. The extracted features from rsEEG and neuropsychological assessments were analyzed as well. Results: The main findings of this study were that: (1) compared with the control group, the ratios of power in theta band [P(theta)] vs. power in alpha band [P(alpha)] [P(theta)/P(alpha)] in the frontal region and left temporal region were significantly higher for aMCI, and (2) for aMCI, the alpha coherences in posterior, fronto-right temporal, fronto-posterior, right temporo-posterior were decreased; the theta coherences in left central-right central (LC-RC) and left posterior-right posterior (LP-RP) regions were also decreased; but the delta coherences in left temporal-right temporal (LT-RT) region were increased. Conclusion: The proposed indexes from rsEEG recordings could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and also to help in the diagnosis of those who develop aMCI.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2014; 6:11. · 5.20 Impact Factor