Measuring adherence with the Doser CT in children with asthma.
ABSTRACT Non-adherence with prescribed asthma treatment causes compromised treatment effectiveness, including greater morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization costs. As a result, there is an increasing interest in measuring patient adherence behaviors. Electronic monitoring devices offer a promising method for assessing patient adherence behavior patterns. The reliability of the Doser Clinical Trials (CT) (Meditrack Products, Hudson, MA), an inexpensive, pressure-actuated device that monitors metered-dose inhaler (MDI) usage, was evaluated in a field study of outpatient pediatric asthmatics. Canister weight and various Doser CT measures of patient medication use were compared to determine the reliability and usefulness of the device. Doser CTs were dispensed to 16 research subjects for use on corticosteroid MDIs over a period of several months. One Doser CT per month was dispensed to each subject. Doser CTs were collected at 30-60 day intervals, with a total of 61 months of Doser CT data obtained across the subjects. MDI canister weights were monitored for a subset of 6 subjects. Usable Doser CT data were summarized and average adherence estimates were computed. Adherence estimates differed from one another and the adherence estimate, as measured by canister weight, was significantly higher than each Doser CT estimate. However, overall, the Doser CT showed adequate reliability as evidenced by high correlations among the Doser CT estimates of adherence and the existing gold standard of canister weight. The Doser CT is likely to be useful for monitoring MDI use in clinical care and research, potentially providing greater accuracy than the standard of canister weight.
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ABSTRACT: Patient adherence with prescribed inhaled therapy is related to morbidity and mortality. The terms "compliance" and "adherence" are used in the literature to describe agreement between prescribed medication and patient practice, with "adherence" implying active patient participation. Patient adherence with inhaled medication can be perfect, good, adequate, poor, or nonexistent, although criteria for such levels are not standardized and may vary from one study to another. Generally, nonadherence can be classified into unintentional (not understood) or intentional (understood but not followed). Failing to understand correct use of an inhaler exemplifies unintentional nonadherence, while refusing to take medication for fear of adverse effects constitutes intentional nonadherence. There are various measures of adherence, including biochemical monitoring of subjects, electronic or mechanical device monitors, direct observation of patients, medical/pharmacy records, counting remaining doses, clinician judgment, and patient self-report or diaries. The methods cited are in order of more to less objective, although even electronic monitoring can be prone to patient deception. Adherence is notoriously higher when determined by patient self-report, compared to electronic monitors. A general lack of adherence with inhaled medications has been documented in studies, and adherence declines over time, even with return clinic visits. Lack of correct aerosol-device use is a particular type of nonadherence, and clinician knowledge of correct use has been shown to be imperfect. Other factors related to patient adherence include the complexity of the inhalation regimen (dosing frequency, number of drugs), route of administration (oral vs inhaled), type of inhaled agent (corticosteroid adherence is worse than with short-acting beta2 agonists), patient awareness of monitoring, as well as a variety of patient beliefs and sociocultural and psychological factors. Good communication skills among clinicians and patient education about inhaled medications are central to improving adherence.Respiratory care 11/2005; 50(10):1346-56; discussion 1357-9. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Compliance is a major determinant for allergy treatment, especially in children. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is self-managed at home, and no quantitative data on pediatric adherence are available. We studied the compliance in a large real-life setting. A simplified schedule of SLIT was used, consisting of a 10-day updosing phase followed by maintenance treatment in monodose containers to be taken daily (SLITOne). Italian specialists throughout Italy assessed the compliance in children who were newly prescribed SLIT according to guidelines. Parents were contacted with unscheduled telephone interviews at the third and sixth month of therapy and asked to count at that moment the remaining vials. Data from 71 children (38 boys, age range 2-13 yr) were enclosed in the database. Thirty had rhinoconjunctivitis, four asthma and 37 rhinoconjunctivitis + asthma. SLIT was prescribed for: mites in 57 (81%) subjects, grasses in 11 (15%) and 3 (4%) grass + olive mixture. Compliance data were available for all children at 3 months, and for 56 at 6 months. At 3 months, 85% of subjects had a compliance rate >75% (69% of them adhered >90%). At 6 months, 84% had a compliance rate >75% (66% of them adhered >90%). In four cases SLIT was discontinued for economical reasons, and in one case (1.4%) for side effects probably related to therapy. These data obtained in a quite large sample of children and in real-life confirm that the compliance with SLITOne is good, despite the therapy managed at home.Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 03/2007; 18(1):58-62. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2006.00471.x · 3.86 Impact Factor