Non-adherence with prescribed asthma treatment causes compromised treatment effectiveness, including greater morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization costs. As a result, there is an increasing interest in measuring patient adherence behaviors. Electronic monitoring devices offer a promising method for assessing patient adherence behavior patterns. The reliability of the Doser Clinical Trials (CT) (Meditrack Products, Hudson, MA), an inexpensive, pressure-actuated device that monitors metered-dose inhaler (MDI) usage, was evaluated in a field study of outpatient pediatric asthmatics. Canister weight and various Doser CT measures of patient medication use were compared to determine the reliability and usefulness of the device. Doser CTs were dispensed to 16 research subjects for use on corticosteroid MDIs over a period of several months. One Doser CT per month was dispensed to each subject. Doser CTs were collected at 30-60 day intervals, with a total of 61 months of Doser CT data obtained across the subjects. MDI canister weights were monitored for a subset of 6 subjects. Usable Doser CT data were summarized and average adherence estimates were computed. Adherence estimates differed from one another and the adherence estimate, as measured by canister weight, was significantly higher than each Doser CT estimate. However, overall, the Doser CT showed adequate reliability as evidenced by high correlations among the Doser CT estimates of adherence and the existing gold standard of canister weight. The Doser CT is likely to be useful for monitoring MDI use in clinical care and research, potentially providing greater accuracy than the standard of canister weight.
"A strength of this study is the use of RTMM as an objective and reliable method for adherence measurement. This method provides minimal room for bias, e.g. by socially acceptable patient response (patient self-report), misjudgement of patient behaviour (adherence questionnaires) and overestimation of adherence based on pharmacy refill data (refill rate, persistence) [13,59,60]. The RTMM device has been designed as a small add-on to the ICS inhaler. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Many children with asthma do not have sufficient asthma control, which leads to increased healthcare costs and productivity loss of parents. One of the causative factors are adherence problems. Effective interventions improving medication adherence may therefore improve asthma control and reduce costs. A promising solution is sending real time text-messages via the mobile phone network, when a medicine is about to be forgotten. As the effect of real time text-messages in children with asthma is unknown, the primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of a Real Time Medication Monitoring system (RTMM) with text-messages on adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The secondary objective is to study the effects of RTMM on asthma control, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of treatment.
A multicenter, randomized controlled trial involving 220 children (4–11 years) using ICS for asthma. All children receive an RTMM-device for one year, which registers time and date of ICS doses. Children in the intervention group also receive tailored text-messages, sent only when a dose is at risk of omission. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of ICS dosages taken within the individually predefined time-interval. Secondary outcome measures include asthma control (monthly Asthma Control Tests), asthma exacerbations, healthcare use (collected from hospital records, patient reports and pharmacy record data), and disease-specific quality of life (PAQLQ questionnaire). Parental and children’s acceptance of RTMM is evaluated with online focus groups and patient questionnaires. An economic evaluation is performed adopting a societal perspective, including relevant healthcare costs and parental productivity loss. Furthermore, a decision-analytic model is developed in which different levels of adherence are associated with clinical and financial outcomes. Also, sensitivity analyses are carried out on different price levels for RTMM.
If RTMM with tailored text-message reminders proves to be effective, this technique can be used in daily practice, which would support children with suboptimal adherence in their asthma (self)management and in achieving better asthma control and better quality of life.
Netherlands Trial Register NTR2583.
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 03/2013; 13(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1472-6947-13-38 · 1.83 Impact Factor
"Compared with EMDs, parental report , questionnaires , diaries [8, 12, 23, 24], canister weights [21, 22, 25–27], and pill counts  have all been found to overestimate adherence. Even when parents were asked about their child's adherence using a nonjudgemental manner, prefaced by a normalising statement, the level of reported adherence did not accurately reflect data from an EMD . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.
Pulmonary Medicine 04/2011; 2011(2090-1836):973849. DOI:10.1155/2011/973849
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