Genetic susceptibility to substance dependence

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
Molecular Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.5). 05/2005; 10(4):336-44. DOI: 10.1038/
Source: PubMed


Despite what is often believed, the majority of those who experiment with substances with a dependence potential do not develop dependence. However, there is a subpopulation of users that easily becomes dependent on substances, and these individuals exhibit pre-existing comorbid traits, including novelty seeking and antisocial behavior. There appears to be a genetic basis for the susceptibility to dependence and these comorbid traits. Animal studies have identified specific genes that can alter susceptibility to dependence and response to novelty. The mechanisms underlying the genetic susceptibility to dependence and response to novelty are complex, but genetic susceptibility plays a significant role in the transition from substance use to dependence and from chronic use to addiction. We discuss two models to explain how genetic variations alter dependence susceptibility. Identification of the specific genes involved in these processes would help to identify individuals that are vulnerable to dependence/addiction and to devise novel treatment strategies.

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    • "pioid dependence is defined as compulsive seeking and taking of opioid drugs such as morphine and heroin and the occurrence of withdrawal syndrome when drug taking is stopped (Wise & Koob, 2014). Although many environmental elements such as stress and social factors are likely to affect drug addiction, genetic variations may also heavily influence the phenomenon (Hiroi & Agatsuma, 2005). In a study by Tsuang et al. (Tsuang et al., 1998), it has been reported that overall heritability for opioid addiction is 54% which could be bifurcated into a section accounting for sole genetic variance (38%) and another part for common liability (16%) with other substances. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a process during which one of the two X chromosomes in female human is silenced leading to equal gene expression with males who have only one X chromosome. Here we have investigated XCI ratio in females with opioid addiction to see whether XCI skewness in women could be a risk factor for opioid addiction. Methods: 30 adult females meeting DSM IV criteria for opioid addiction and 30 control females with no known history of addiction were included in the study. Digested and undigested DNA samples which were extracted from blood were analyzed after amplification of the polymorphic androgen receptor (AR) gene located on the X chromosome. XCI skewness was studied in 3 ranges: 50:50-64:36 (random inactivation), 65:35-80:20 (moderately skewed) and >80:20 (highly skewed). Results: XCI from informative females in control group was 63% (N=19) random, 27% (N=8) moderately skewed and 10% (N=3) highly skewed. Addicted women showed 57%, 23% and 20%, respectively. The distribution and frequency of XCI status in women with opioid addiction was not significantly different from control group (P=0.55). Discussion: Our data did not approve our hypothesis of increased XCI skewness among women with opioid addiction or unbalanced (non-random) expression of genes associated with X chromosome in female opioid addicted subjects.
    • "The rewarding value of novelty might be important for adaptive behavior since it can promote exploration of new food sources and beneficial environments. However, in humans the association between novelty exploration (novelty seeking) and reward might at times be maladaptive since it can promote addictive behaviors (Bardo et al., 1996; Hiroi and Agatsuma, 2004; Spinella, 2003). In relation to memory encoding, it seems that both reward and novelty anticipation are associated with midbrain activity that promotes dopamine release. "
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    ABSTRACT: We review reports of brain activations that occur immediately prior to the onset or following the offset of to-be-remembered information and can predict subsequent mnemonic success. Memory-predictive pre-encoding processes, occurring from fractions of a second to minutes prior to event onset, are mainly associated with activations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), amygdala and midbrain, and with enhanced theta oscillations. These activations may be considered as the neural correlates of one or more cognitive operations, including contextual processing, attention, and the engagement of distinct computational modes associated with prior encoding or retrieval. Post-encoding activations that correlate with subsequent memory performance are mainly observed in the MTL, sensory cortices and frontal regions. These activations may reflect binding of elements of the encoded information and initiation of memory consolidation. In all, the findings reviewed here illustrate the importance of brain states in the immediate peri-encoding time windows in determining encoding success. Understanding these brain states and their specific effects on memory may lead to optimization of the encoding of desired memories and mitigation of undesired ones.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 11/2014; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.11.002 · 8.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Alcohol dependence (AD) is substantially heritable with studies estimating that heritability is between 50 and 70 % (Heath et al. 1997; Hiroi and Agatsuma 2005; Ystrom et al. 2011; Young-Wolff et al. 2012). Genes associated with AD include those coding for enzymes involved in the absorption and elimination of ethanol such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) (Zakhari 2006; Edenberg 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol dependence (AD) has a large heritable component. Genetic variation in genes involved in the absorption and elimination of ethanol have been associated with AD. However, some of these polymorphisms are not present in an African population. Previous studies have reported that a type of AD which is characterized by anxious behaviour may be a genetically specific subtype of AD. We investigated whether variation in genes encoding cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) or acetaldehyde-metabolising enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH2) might alter the risk of AD, with and without symptoms of anxiety, in a Cape population with mixed ancestry. Eighty case control pairs (one with AD, one without AD) were recruited and individually matched for potential confounders. Genotype data were available for 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the three genes. Linkage disequilibrium D' values were evaluated for all pairwise comparisons. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a χ (2) test. The ACAG haplotype in block 4 of the ALDH1A1 gene provided evidence of an association with AD (p = 0.03) and weak evidence of an association with AD without symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.06). When a genetic score was constructed using SNPs showing nominal evidence of association with AD, every extra risk allele increased the odds of AD by 35 % (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.08, 1.68, p = 0.008) and the odds of having AD with anxiety symptoms increased by 53 % (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.14, 2.05, p = 0.004). Although our results are supported by previous studies in other populations, they must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the potential influence of population stratification.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 02/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1007/s11011-014-9503-x · 2.64 Impact Factor
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