Analysis of near full-length genome sequences of HIV type 1 BF intersubtype recombinant viruses from Brazil reveals their independent origins and their lack of relationship to CRF12_BF.
ABSTRACT We analyze the recombinant structures and phylogenetic relationships of nine near full-length genome sequences of HIV-1 BF intersubtype recombinant viruses from Brazil, eight of them newly derived. These were obtained by PCR amplification from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) DNA or PBMCs culture supernantant RNA. The recombinants exhibited unique mosaic structures, except two viruses with a single near coincident breakpoint. Comparison with CRF12_BF revealed only two coincident breakpoints in two recombinants. Phylogenetic analyses failed to support a common ancestry of Brazilian recombinants or their relationship to CRF12_BF, which widely circulates in Argentina. Intersubtype breakpoint distribution along the genome was uneven, with the highest mean frequency in the polymerase domain of reverse transcriptase, and the lowest in env. These results indicate that HIV-1 BF recombinants from Brazil have independent origins and are unrelated to CRF12_BF, and that intersubtype breakpoints are frequent in pol segments analyzed for drug resistance detection.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C in southern Brazil. Although Santa Catarina State (SC) is located in this area and presents one of the country's highest incidences of HIV/AIDS, knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in such State is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the HIV-1 molecular diversity and epidemiological profile of HIV-1-infected patients from SC. DNA samples were PCR amplified and HIV-1 subtypes were determined using both env and gag genes by direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 48% were subtype C and 23% were subtype B. Possible recombinant forms were observed for both B/C (23%) and B/F (6%) subtypes. Our results, for the first time, identifies HIV-1 subtype C as a major clade circulating in SC and contributes to the understanding of HIV epidemics in the country by confirming the epidemic spread of the HIV-1 subtype C in southern Brazil.Journal of Medical Virology 10/2007; 79(10):1455-63. DOI:10.1002/jmv.20955 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most published data on antiretroviral-drug resistance is generated from in vitro or in vivo studies of subtype B virus. However, this subtype is associated with <10% of HIV infections worldwide, and it is essential to explore subtype-specific determinants of drug resistance. One potential cause of the differences between subtypes is the synonymous codon usage at key resistance positions. We investigated the nucleotide sequences at drug resistance-related sites, for all major Brazilian subtypes (B, C, and F1) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M. We identified a change at positions 151 and 210 of the reverse-transcriptase region in subtype F1, such that the emergence of these key nucleoside/nucleotide analogue resistance mutations required an extra nucleotide change in subtype F1, compared with subtypes B and C. The clinical significance of position 210 was confirmed within a large Brazilian database, in which we identified a lower prevalence of the L210W mutation in subtype F1 virus, compared with subtype B virus, in patients matched for thymidine-analogue experience. An inverse relationship between the L210W and K70R mutations was also observed. The findings of the present study illustrate an important mechanism by which a subtype may determine genetic routes to resistance, with implications for treatment strategies for populations infected with HIV-1 subtype F.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2004; 189(7):1232-8. DOI:10.1086/382483 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the major characteristics of HIV-1 is its high genetic variability and extensive heterogeneity. This characteristic is due to its molecular traits, which in turn allows it to vary, recombine, and diversify at a high frequency. As such, it generates complex molecular forms, termed recombinants, which evade the human immune system and so survive. There is no sequence constraint to the recombination pattern as it appears to occur at inter-group (between groups M and O), as well as interand intra-subtype within group M. Rapid emergence and active global transmission of HIV-1 recombinants, known as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs), requires urgent attention. To date, 55 CRFs have been reported around the world. The first CRF01_AE originated from Central Africa but spread widely in Asia. The most recent CRF; CRF55_01B is a recombinant form of CRF01_AE and subtype B, although its origin is yet to be publicly disclosed. HIV-1 recombination is an ongoing event and plays an indispensable role in HIV epidemics in different regions. Africa, Asia and South America are identified as recombination hot-spots. They are affected by continual emergence and cocirculation of newly emerging CRFs and URFs, which are now responsible for almost 20% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. Better understanding of recombinants is necessary to determine their biological and molecular attributes.Infectious disease reports 06/2013; 5(Suppl 1):e4. DOI:10.4081/idr.2013.s1.e4