Work Group Diversity and Group Performance: An Integrative Model and Research Agenda

Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Journal of Applied Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.31). 01/2005; 89(6):1008-22. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.6.1008
Source: PubMed


Research on the relationship between work group diversity and performance has yielded inconsistent results. To address this problem, the authors propose the categorization-elaboration model (CEM), which reconceptualizes and integrates information/decision making and social categorization perspectives on work-group diversity and performance. The CEM incorporates mediator and moderator variables that typically have been ignored in diversity research and incorporates the view that information/decision making and social categorization processes interact such that intergroup biases flowing from social categorization disrupt the elaboration (in-depth processing) of task-relevant information and perspectives. In addition, the authors propose that attempts to link the positive and negative effects of diversity to specific types of diversity should be abandoned in favor of the assumption that all dimensions of diversity may have positive as well as negative effects. The ways in which these propositions may set the agenda for future research in diversity are discussed.

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    • "Literature on heterogeneity theorizes positive effects from an information/decision-making perspective [16]. The underlying value-in-heterogeneity hypothesis claims that greater heterogeneity may lead to more innovative and creative solutions, enhanced responsiveness and greater flexibility for dynamic requirement adjustments [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: While new organizational offerings, such as product-service systems (PSS), are evolving from adapted strategic decisions, the actors involved in the dynamic implementation of the product-service work system (PSWS) originate from different organizational backgrounds, contribute from various fields of expertise and are familiarized with different working cultures. This built-in heterogeneity is rooted in three distinct compositional sources of the PSWS and it can be classified into a separation, a variety and a disparity type. It gives floor to the successful co-creation of value but also contains numerous challenges as it demands the integration of product and service dominated logics within a heterogeneous, yet collaborative problem-solving working context. This paper aims at eliciting a set of individual competencies that helps workers cope with the demands of PSWS with specific interest in positive and negative effects of different types of built-in heterogeneity.Data presented result from a survey among PSS engineers across branches and organizational entities that were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire in 2012-2013 about competencies as behavioral ad-hoc regulations for unstandardized problem-solving environments. An explorative factor analysis results in a three-dimensional configuration: a) a set of coordinative practices is bundled for improved problem-solving mainly based on positive variety utilization,b) a set of optimistic information filtering activities is bundled to reduce complexity and to benefit from separation and variety, c) a set of reflective in-depth-learning practices supports a high aim at improving and builds on the utilization of variety and separation effects. Based on this configuration positive effects of PSWS built-in heterogeneity can be maximized while negative effects are minimized.
    12/2015; 30:402-407. DOI:10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.097
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    • "There is a stream of authors who believe that cultural diversity is a constraint on management practice and organizational culture (Gerhart, 2008; Gerhart and Fang, 2005; Pelled, 1996; Shenkar et Zeira, 1992). However, another stream of thought demonstrates that a cultural factor may be beneficial provided that it is well managed (Karjalainen, 2010; Van Knippenberg, De Dreu and Homan 2004; Holden, 2002). Similarly, with the resource-based-view (RBV) of strategy, this paper posits that knowledge management (KM) can moderate cultural diversity and lead to sustainable competitive advantage for organizations. "
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    • "ee & Van der Gang , 2007 ) . Furthermore , dissimilarity has been shown to reduce workgroup effectiveness , mainly through psychological processes , such as categorization and intergroup anxiety , which have been well documented both in Dutch and international contexts ( for an overview , see Fiske , 1998 ; Hofhuis , Van der Zee , & Otten , 2014 ; Van Knippenberg et al . , 2004 ) . A qualitative study conducted among Dutch managers confirmed that minority employees are often seen as a threat to the ( social ) status quo in the workplace ( Hofhuis et al . , 2015 ) . The interviewees in this study state a fear of productivity loss : the possible language differences between cultural groups , as well as greater p"
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    ABSTRACT: Although many strategies have been employed to specifically recruit and select minority employees, the selection rates for designated minority groups are often lower than those for the majority group. Minority candidates with high cultural maintenance (CM) are particularly vulnerable to cultural bias in selection procedures, a process which has proved difficult to change. This paper aims to examine whether these effects may be moderated by recruiters’ perceived diversity outcomes; whether they view diversity as beneficial or threatening to the organization’s performance. In an experimental study, participants belonging to a cultural majority group played the role of recruiters (n ¼ 99). Their diversity perceptions were manipulated by asking them to think about, and discuss, either positive or negative outcomes of cultural diversity in the workplace. They were then asked to rate fictional profiles of minority candidates for a job opening. The results confirm that CM of minority candidates has a negative main effect on the ratings they receive in assessment procedures. However, as predicted, this effect is moderated by diversity perceptions. Recruiters who perceive individual differences in the workplace as positive and beneficial, give higher ratings to candidates who maintain their own culture. This provides a promising insight in possible ways to reduce cultural bias in selection procedures.
    The International Journal of Human Resource Management 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/09585192.2015.1072100 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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