A screening study of xylitol binding in vitro to activated charcoal
ABSTRACT Ingestion of foods containing the sweetener xylitol by dogs results in a significant, and often sustained, insulin-mediated hypoglycemic crisis. The efficacy of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination following xylitol ingestion is unknown. This screening study examined the effect of pH and incubation time on the in vitro binding of xylitol to activated charcoal. The mean percentage activated charcoal binding ranged between 8 and 23%. Mean percentage binding of xylitol at pH 3 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the binding of xylitol at pH 1 or pH 5 following 40 or 60 min of incubation with an aQueous 200 g/L activated charcoal slurry. These results suggest binding of xylitol to activated charcoal is relatively low; however, activated charcoal administration may still be beneficial in some canine acute oral xylitol exposures.
- SourceAvailable from: Juraj Pistl
- "administration of fluids; plasma transfusions; and, if indicated, administration of dextrose. Cope (2004) revealed that binding of xylitol to activated charcoal is relatively low; however, activated charcoal administration may still be beneficial in some canine acute oral xylitol exposures. "
Article: Some food toxic for pets[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: According to world statistics, dogs and cats are the species that owners most frequently seek assistance with potential poisonings, accounting 95–98% of all reported animal cases. Exposures occur more commonly in the summer and in December that is associated with the holiday season. The majority (>90%) of animal poisonings are accidental and acute in nature and occur near or at the animal owner's home. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may also prove dangerous for their health. The aim of this review was to present common food items that should not be fed (intentionally or unintentionally) to dogs, i.e. chocolate, caffeine, and other methylxanthines, grapes, raisins, onion, garlic, avocado, alcohol, nuts, xylitol contained in chewing gum and candies, etc. Onion and avocado are toxic for cats, too. The clinical effects of individual toxicants and possible therapy are also mentioned. Knowing what human food has the potential to be involved in serious toxicoses should allow veterinarians to better educate their clients on means of preventing pet poisonings. It can be concluded that the best advice must surely be to give animal fodder or treats specifically developed for their diets.Interdisciplinary toxicology 09/2009; 2(3):169-76. DOI:10.2478/v10102-009-0012-4
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 8 adult dogs were evaluated for treatment of lethargy and vomiting after ingestion of xylitol, a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener in various products. In addition to vomiting and lethargy, 5 of the dogs had widespread petechial, ecchymotic, or gastrointestinal tract hemorrhages. Common clinicopathologic findings included moderately to severely high serum activities of liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, hyperphosphatemia, prolonged clotting times, and thrombocytopenia. Necropsies were performed on 3 dogs and severe hepatic necrosis was found in 2. In the third dog, histologic examination revealed severe hepatocyte loss or atrophy with lobular collapse. Treatments varied among dogs and included IV administration of fluids; plasma transfusions; and, if indicated, administration of dextrose. Three dogs were euthanatized, 2 dogs died, 2 dogs made a complete recovery, and 1 dog was recovering but was lost to follow-up. Although xylitol causes hypoglycemia in dogs, hepatic failure after ingestion has not previously been reported. Because an increasing number of consumer products contain xylitol, clinicians should be aware that ingestion of xylitol can have serious, life-threatening effects.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 11/2006; 229(7):1113-7. DOI:10.2460/javma.229.7.1113 · 1.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe a case of xylitol intoxication causing fulminant hepatic failure in a dog.Case summary: A 2.5-year-old castrated male English Springer Spaniel weighing 26 kg, was presented after ingestion of half of a loaf of bread containing the sweetener xylitol. Toxic effects of the xylitol in this dog included vomiting, mild hypoglycemia and fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical management of acute hepatic failure and subsequent coagulopathy with supportive care and fresh frozen plasma is described. The dog was discharged 3 days after admission after a full clinical recovery.New or unique information provided: This paper describes the clinical consequence and successful treatment of fulminant hepatic failure in a dog following ingestion of xylitol.08/2007; 17(3):286 - 289. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-4431.2007.00243.x