Evaluation, grafting success and field establishment of cashew rootstock as influenced by VAM fungi
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore, India. Indian journal of experimental biology
(Impact Factor: 0.84).
Seven isolates of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were isolated from cashew rhizosphere soil of different cashew growing regions of South India. These seven isolates along with two more VAM fungi namely Acaulospora laevis and Glomus mosseae, which were found to be better symbionts for cashew during our earlier study were used to study their effectiveness on the growth and nutrition of cashew rootstock Ullal-1. Four promising VAM fungi were selected based on this study. Rootstocks inoculated with these four fungi were evaluated for their vigour through grafting success, using Ullal-3 cashew variety as scion. Grafting success was more in rootstocks inoculated with A. laevis and one of local isolates Glomus etunicatum. Grafts with rootstock treated with G. etunicatum and A. laevis survived and performed better when planted in the field compared to the uninoculated and other VAM fungal treatments.
Available from: D. J. Bagyaraj
- "A few studies performed so far have recorded the occurrence of Glomus species in the root zone soils of different tree species (Muthukumar and Manian, 1993; Vasanthakrishna et al., 1994). Similarly, Lakshmipathy et al. (2004) recorded Glomus etunicatum in the root zone soil of cashew. The mycorrhizal activity in terms of root colonization was examined in 59 different forest tree species and the intensity of colonization was found to be high in four species, moderate in 23 species and low in 32 species (Byra Reddy et al., 1994). "
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ABSTRACT: The impact of land use intensity on the abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated at six land use types viz., natural forest, grassland, acacia plantations, cardamom plantations, coffee plantations and paddy fields in the Niligiri Biosphere of the Western Ghats in South India. There was no significant difference in AMF root colonization in different land use types during pre-monsoon but there was a significant difference in AMF root infection ratings between different land use types during post-monsoon season, where it was higher in natural forests and grasslands. The AMF spore density and infective propagules were significantly higher in grasslands and acacia plantations compared to all other land use types during both seasons. Except for paddy fields, the spore density and number of infective propagules were higher in post-monsoon season compared to pre-monsoon season in other land use types. The numbers of AMF species identified were 56 during pre-monsoon and 67 species during post-monsoon season suggesting seasonal variations in diversity. During both seasons Glomus fasciculatum was recorded in maximum number of sampling points across the landscape followed by G. geosporum during pre-monsoon and G. mosseae during post-monsoon season. The species diversity was highest in natural forests and grasslands as compared to other land use types in both seasons. The species richness index for AMF was highest in natural forests and least in paddy fields during both study periods. The sand content, bulk density, total N, organic C, alkaline and acid phosphatases positively correlated with AMF activity while clay, silt, K, total P and available P were negatively correlated.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 07/2012; 14(4). · 0.70 Impact Factor
Available from: Rajkumar H. Garampalli
- "Studies made so far from the Western Ghats region, suggest that the Glomus species found dominant in the root zone soils of different tree species (Muthukumar and Manian 1993; Vasanthakrishna et al.1994). Similarly, Lakshmipathy et al. (2004) found Glomus etunicatum in the root zone soil of cashew. The mycorrhizal activity in terms of root colonization was examined in 59 different forest tree species and the intensity of colonization was found to be high in four species, moderate in 23 species and low in 32 species (Reddy et al.1994). "
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ABSTRACT: The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of 46 medicinal plant species of herbs and shrubs in the western ghats of Karnataka region were surveyed during the month of September and November 2010 and 2011. Percent colonization, spore density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with the rhizospheric soil and roots of medicinal plants growing wild as well as under cultivated conditions in this area were investigated. It was found that 100% of the surveyed species were mycorrhizal. The spore density of AMF ranged from 15 to 520 spores per 100 g of soil. Percent root colonization and spore density was comparatively higher in the KDU region than other sampling sites. A total of 40 AMF morphotypes were recovered, of this 4 were identified upto genus level. Among 36 identified AMF taxa Glomus sps. were found to be very dominant in the rhizosphere of medicinal plants followed by Acaulospora sps., Gigaspora sps., Scutellospora sps., Paraglomus sps and Pacispora sps. Variation in the spore density and percent colonization among different sampling sites could be attributed to host specificity, adaphic and climatic conditions.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 01/2012; 2(1):13-20.
Available from: Stefano Corsi
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ABSTRACT: Cashew is a tropical tree native to South America. Cashew was introduced in Asia and Africa by European explorers in the sixteenth century. The world production of cashew raw nuts reached 4.27 million tons in 2011. Vietnam is the top producer of raw nuts, and India is the first processor and exporter of processed nuts. The cashew market is expected to remain strong due to the high growth of production in some areas such as West Africa. For instance, a 40 % production increase has been observed in Nigeria over the last 5 years. There is also an increasing exploitation of high-value by-products, particularly those made of cashew nut shell liquid. Cashew production is potentially a major value for smallholder farmers from emerging countries. Despite the relevance of cashew production on the international markets and the potential for boosting rural development and reducing poverty, a complete review on cashew is missing. Therefore, we review here the cashew production chain. Our main conclusions are as follows: (1) several management practices, processing methods, and uses of products and by-products are published; (2) however, there is still a lack of knowledge due to a scattered research framework lacking integrated research programs; (3) smallholder farmers face major constraints limiting the development of cashew sector locally, ranging from difficult access to good planting material and training to lack of investment for innovating processing facilities; (4) among them, women, that account for up to 95 % of the workforce in the sector, receive lower wages and are subject to worse working conditions.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 10/2014; 34(4):753-772. DOI:10.1007/s13593-014-0240-7 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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