Microarray analysis of proliferative and hypertrophic growth plate zones identifies differentiation markers and signal pathways

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Bone (Impact Factor: 4.46). 01/2005; 35(6):1273-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2004.09.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Longitudinal bone growth results from coordination of proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes, calcification of the matrix, vascular invasion, and completion of endochondral bone formation in the growth plate. Although proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes are well characterized histomorphologically, the understanding of factors governing this transition is not fully explained. Our hypothesis was that significant differential gene expression exists between proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes that may provide clues to the regulation of this transition at the transcriptional level. Normal Sprague-Dawley rat growth plate chondrocytes from the proliferative zone (PZ) and hypertrophic zone (HZ) were isolated by laser capture microdissection and then subjected to microarray analysis. Confirmation of the differential expression of selected genes was done by in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 40 transcripts showed at least twofold greater expression in the PZ compared to HZ at both 6 and 7 weeks of age, while 52 transcripts showed twofold greater expression in the HZ compared to PZ at these time points. Many of the differentially expressed genes in each zone had very high levels of expression and thus were classified as "enriched transcripts" for that zone. The PZ-enriched transcripts included fibromodulin, proline arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and enolase 1 alpha. In contrast, HZ-enriched transcripts included collagen I, protein kinase (lysine deficient 4), proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 4, prostaglandin I2 synthase, and integrin-binding sialoprotein, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), and collagen X. Other genes were highly expressed in cells from both zones, including collagen II, aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric protein, cartilage link protein, laminin receptor, and eukaryotic translocation elongation factor. Functional classification of the PZ-enriched transcripts showed an increased percentage of genes expressed in nuclear cell cycle and transcription functions. In contrast, the HZ-enriched transcripts were more involved in extracellular structure and membrane receptor and transporter functions. Pathway analysis indicated that transforming growth factor beta and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) pathways were important in both zones, and bone morphogenic protein pathway played a role in the HZ. It is likely that these differentially expressed genes are involved in regulation of the transition from proliferation to differentiation functions in the growth plate.


Available from: Frank Middleton, Jun 15, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endochondral bone formation is orchestrated by mesenchymal cell condensation to form cartilage anlagen, which act as a template for bone formation and eventual mineralization. The current study performed gene expression analysis to examine pre- and post-mineralization stages (E15 and E19) of endochondral bone formation, using fetal metatarsal long bones as a model. An extensive number of genes were differentially expressed, with 543 transcripts found to have at least 2-fold up-regulation and 742 with a greater than 2-fold down-regulation. A bioinformatics approach was adopted based on gene ontology groups, and this identified genes associated with the regulation of signaling and skeletal development, cartilage replacement by bone, and matrix degradation and turnover. Transcripts linked to skeletal patterning, including Hoxd genes 10-12, Gli2 and Noggin were considerably down-regulated at E19. Whereas genes associated with bone matrix formation and turnover, ACP5, MMP-13, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, dentin matrix protein-1 and MMP-9 all were distinctly up-regulated at this later time point. This approach to studying the formation of the primary ossification center provides a unique picture of the developmental dynamics involved in the molecular and biochemical processes during this intricately regulated process.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2006; 1763(10):1031-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2006.08.027 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chondrocytes hypertrophy is a physiological process observed in endochondral ossification during development until adolescence in human. It can also be observed during pathophysiological conditions such as osteoarthritis. Hypertrophic chondrocytes synthesise collagen X and express matrix metalloproteinase 13 and alkaline phosphatase. The cellular models available to study this process are either not convenient, they might lead to a rapid dedifferentiation of chondrocytes, or they are far from the physiological conditions. The objective of this study was to design an user-friendly 2D-primary cell culture of young articular chondrocytes of rat able to follow the terminal differentiation process. After confluence, chondrocytes were cultured according to 4 differentiation protocols. Protocol 1 contained DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and 2 μg/ml insulin. Protocol 2 contained alpha-MEM supplemented with 5% FBS and 2 μg/ml insulin. Protocol 3 contained 2% FBS and 2 μg/ml insulin. Protocol 4 contained DMEM/F12 supplemented with 2% FBS in absence or in presence of 2 μg/ml insulin and 37.5 μg/ml ascorbate. The cell morphology was observed by phase-contrast microscopy and the expression of markers specific of mature and hypertrophic chondrocytes were assessed by RT-qPCR. The effect of a decrease in nutrient quality of the culture medium after confluence was tested using protocols 1, 2 and 3. Protocol 1 did not allow the maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype more than one week, because cells became fibroblastic. A decrease in Sox9 mRNA expression, in collagen II/collagen I and in aggrecan/versican mRNA ratios was also found with protocol 1. Protocol 3 was the best when compared with protocols 1 and 2. It allowed chondrocytes to adopt a hypertrophic morphology. Cells also expressed the collagen X specific hypertrophic marker, and presented an increase in collagen II/I and aggrecan/versican ratios after 15 days of culture post-confluence. The effect of the insulin/ascorbate supplementation was studied using protocol 4. The insulin/ascorbate supplementation allowed an earlier chondrocytes conversion to terminal differentiation with a prolonged effect till 3 weeks post-confluence, compared to control without insulin/ascorbate. Finally, the profile of chondrocyte differentiation was checked during 5 successive sub-cultures. Only the first passage could be used to study hypertrophy. A convenient protocol to study chondrocyte hypertrophy is proposed. Protocol 4 offers the possibility to study this differentiation phenotype which is crucial for the development of articular diseases such as osteoarthritis. Our model could also be used in tissue engineering for cartilage repair strategies in which hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocyte should be avoided.
    Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2015; 25:87-102. DOI:10.3233/BME-141252 · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) belong to the M10 family of the MA clan of endopeptidases. They are ubiquitarian enzymes, structurally characterized by an active site where a Zn(2+) atom, coordinated by three histidines, plays the catalytic role, assisted by a glutamic acid as a general base. Various MMPs display different domain composition, which is very important for macromolecular substrates recognition. Substrate specificity is very different among MMPs, being often associated to their cellular compartmentalization and/or cellular type where they are expressed. An extensive review of the different MMPs structural and functional features is integrated with their pathological role in several types of diseases, spanning from cancer to cardiovascular diseases and to neurodegeneration. It emerges a very complex and crucial role played by these enzymes in many physiological and pathological processes.
    Molecular Aspects of Medicine 11/2011; 33(2):119-208. DOI:10.1016/j.mam.2011.10.015 · 10.30 Impact Factor