Myoepithelium is an integral part of the mammary ductal and lobular architecture, positioned between luminal cells and the basement membrane. We describe the first report on cytogenetic findings in an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with a balanced t(8;16)(p23;q21), and provide gene expression profile using Affymetrix GeneChip U95AV2 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Differential analysis identified 857 genes with 2-fold or more mRNA change in comparison to pooled normal breast control; immunohistochemical analysis was used to confirm these results in a limited number of genes. Expression results were grouped based on the chromosomal location of the genes and associated protein function, and identified several potential pathogenetic mechanisms (autocrine and paracrine growth stimuli) in the development of myoepithelial tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA microarrays are a powerful technology that can provide a wealth of gene expression data for disease studies, drug development, and a wide scope of other investigations. Because of the large volume and inherent variability of DNA microarray data, many new statistical methods have been developed for evaluating the significance of the observed differences in gene expression. However, until now little attention has been given to the characterization of dispersion of DNA microarray data.
Here we examine the expression data obtained from 682 Affymetrix GeneChips with 22 different types and we demonstrate that the Gaussian (normal) frequency distribution is characteristic for the variability of gene expression values. However, typically 5 to 15% of the samples deviate from normality. Furthermore, it is shown that the frequency distributions of the difference of expression in subsets of ordered, consecutive pairs of genes (consecutive samples) in pair-wise comparisons of replicate experiments are also normal. We describe a consecutive sampling method, which is employed to calculate the characteristic function approximating standard deviation and show that the standard deviation derived from the consecutive samples is equivalent to the standard deviation obtained from individual genes. Finally, we determine the boundaries of probability intervals and demonstrate that the coefficients defining the intervals are independent of sample characteristics, variability of data, laboratory conditions and type of chips. These coefficients are very closely correlated with Student's t-distribution.
In this study we ascertained that the non-systematic variations possess Gaussian distribution, determined the probability intervals and demonstrated that the K(alpha) coefficients defining these intervals are invariant; these coefficients offer a convenient universal measure of dispersion of data. The fact that the K(alpha) distributions are so close to t-distribution and independent of conditions and type of arrays suggests that the quantitative data provided by Affymetrix technology give "true" representation of physical processes, involved in measurement of RNA abundance.
This article was reviewed by Yoav Gilad (nominated by Doron Lancet), Sach Mukherjee (nominated by Sandrine Dudoit) and Amir Niknejad and Shmuel Friedland (nominated by Neil Smalheiser).
Biology Direct 02/2006; 1(1):27. DOI:10.1186/1745-6150-1-27 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) of the breast is an uncommon tumor characterized by biphasic proliferation of both epithelial and myoepithelial cells. In rare instances, the epithelial, the myoepithelial or both components of an AME may become malignant. Described herein is the case of a 69-year-old woman who presented with myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast in an AME. Malignancy of myoepithelial component (MEC) was evidenced by the presence of cytological atypia, high mitotic rate, necrosis and local invasion. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated strong expression of P53 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in MEC. Laser capture microdissection technique and mutational analysis further revealed point mutation of the p53 gene (T-->G transversion at codon 270) in this population, but not in glandular epithelial cells or adjacent normal ductal epithelium. No mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the K-, H-, and N-ras genes were identified in any of the neoplastic component. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a mutation in the p53 gene in a malignant AME of the breast.
Pathology International 05/2006; 56(4):211-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1827.2006.01948.x · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC-1) gene encodes a GTPase activating protein that acts as a negative regulator of the Rho family of small GTPases. Rho proteins transduce signals that influence cell morphology and physiology, and their aberrant up-regulation is a key factor in the neoplastic process, including metastasis. Since its discovery, compelling evidence has accumulated that demonstrates a role for DLC-1 as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene in different types of human cancer. Loss of DLC-1 expression mediated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms has been associated with the development of many human cancers, and restoration of DLC-1 expression inhibited the growth of tumour cells in vivo and in vitro. Two closely related genes, DLC-2 and DLC-3, may also be tumour suppressors. This review presents the current status of progress in understanding the biological functions of DLC-1 and its relatives and their roles in neoplasia.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 09/2007; 11(5):1185-207. DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00098.x · 4.01 Impact Factor
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