Anti-HIV activities of organic and aqueous extracts of Sutherlandia frutescens and Lobostemon trigonus
ABSTRACT A screening process was applied to extracts made from Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br (Fabaceae) and Lobostemon trigonus (Boraginaceae) as identified by the Botany Department, University of Port Elizabeth to detect if any of the extracts inhibited the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For purposes of dereplication, sulphated polysaccharides were removed and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was included in the assays to adsorb non-specific tannins potentially present. In the reverse transcriptase (RT) assay, an aqueous extract of the Lobostemon leaves inhibited HIV-1 RT with an IC50 value of 49 microg/ml, while in the protease assay no inhibition was seen. In the alpha- and beta-glucosidase assays, no significant inhibition was seen with the inclusion of BSA, indicating tannin-based inhibitory effects on these two enzymes. The beta-glucuronidase inhibitory activity, however, was retained in the presence of BSA. The study shows that Sutherlandia extracts contain inhibitory compounds active against HIV target enzymes, while aqueous Lobostemon leaf extracts contain a potent HIV-1 RT inhibitor, thus showing a potential mechanistic action of these plants in aiding HIV-positive patients.
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ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Despite advances in anti-retroviral therapy which has transformed HIV/AIDS from a fatal to a manageable chronic disease, increasing viral drug resistance, side effects and uneven access to anti-retroviral drugs remain considerable therapeutic challenges. Partly as a consequence of these shortcomings and partly based on the fact that HIV/AIDS gives rise to opportunistic infections whose symptoms have been managed in Africa in an HIV/AIDS-independent context by traditional healers for centuries, many HIV/AIDS patients use herbal medicines. The aim of this study was to screen selected medicinal plants from Botswana, used by traditional healers to treat/manage HIV/AIDS, for inhibitory activities on HIV replication. Materials and methods: Based on an ethnomedical survey, ethanolic tannin-containing and tannin-free extracts from 10 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory properties against a clone of HIV-1c (MJ4) measuring cytopathic effect protection and levels of viral p24 antigen in infected PBMCs. Results: Cassia sieberiana D.C., Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Oliv. and Plumbago zeylanica L. extracts showed significant inhibition of HIV-1c (MJ4) replication. The inhibitory activity of the Plumbago zeylanica extract could be attributed to its tannin content. Anti-HIV activity of Cassia sieberiana root and bark extracts, and Cassia abbreviata root extracts occurred in a concentration-dependent manner with an effective concentration (EC50) of 65.1 �g/ml, 85.3 �g/ml and 102.8 �g/ml, respectively. Experiments to elucidate possible mechanism(s) of action revealed that Cassia sieberiana root and bark extracts blocked HIV replication at its binding- (EC50 = 70.2 �g/ml and 90.8 �g/ml, respectively) and entry stage (EC50 = 88.9 �g/ml and 100.5 �g/ml, respectively) while Cassia abbreviata extracts did not. Conclusions: We report here for the first time a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1c replication of extracts from two extremely popular medicinal plants, Cassia sieberiana and Cassia abbreviata. Considering the traditional uses of both Cassia species, our findings strongly suggest pilot clinical observational studies involving traditional healers to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the Cassia extracts.
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ABSTRACT: Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae) commonly known as cancer-bush, is a well-known traditional phytomedicine in South Africa used to treat a range of ailments. There is limited information available on the phytochemistry and chemical variation within and between the S. frutescens and Sutherlandia microphylla species complex. This paper aims to elucidate the chemical variation of phytoconstituents (other than the non-protein amino acids) between the two species S. frutescens and S. microphylla and also between the wild and cultivated varieties of S. frutescens. An UPLC–MS analysis in tandem with chemometric analysis has been performed to assess the metabolite content of aerial plant parts obtained from different populations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to observe groupings and trends in the data matrix. An orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed which resulted in clear groups between the two taxa. Several flavonoid and triterpenoid glycoside derivatives contribute to the quantitative chemotypic variation within and between the species as observed. The identification of these compounds using advanced chromatographic techniques (UPLC–MS) and chemometric analysis leads to a better understanding of the phytochemical variation of Sutherlandia which can aid in quality control of raw material, phytomedicines and commercial herbal products.Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 10/2014; 56:221–230. DOI:10.1016/j.bse.2014.06.009 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV/AIDS is a pandemic retarding economic growth and destroying human capital globally. This study therefore investigated the perceived efficacy of Betula alba (BA) and Sutherlandia frutescens (SF) decoctions used in the management of HIV/AIDS in Ghana.African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 07/2014; 11(3):166-72. DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v11i3.24 · 0.56 Impact Factor