Socioeconomic factors and processes associated with domestic violence in rural Bangladesh.

Empowerment of Women Research Program, Center for Applied Behavioral and Evaluation Research, Academy for Educational Development, Boston, MA, USA.
International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health (Impact Factor: 1.94). 01/2005; 30(4):190-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the pervasiveness of domestic violence against women in Bangladesh is well documented, specific risk factors, particularly those that can be affected by policies and programs, are not well understood.
In 2001-2002, surveys, in-depth interviews and small group discussions were conducted with married women from six Bangladeshi villages to examine the types and severity of domestic violence, and to explore the pathways through which women's social and economic circumstances may influence their vulnerability to violence in marriage. Women's odds of experiencing domestic violence in the past year were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
Of about 1,200 women surveyed, 67% had ever experienced domestic violence, and 35% had done so in the past year. According to the qualitative findings, participants expected women with more education and income to be less vulnerable to domestic violence; they also believed (or hoped) that having a dowry or a registered marriage could strengthen a women's position in her marriage. Yet, of these potential factors, only education was associated with significantly reduced odds of violence; meanwhile, the odds were increased for women who had a dowry agreement or had personal earnings that contributed more than nominally to the marital household. Women strongly supported educating their daughters, but pressures remain to marry them early, in part to avoid high dowry costs.
In rural Bangladesh, women's social and economic circumstances may influence their risk of domestic violence in complex and contradictory ways. Findings also suggest a disconnect between women's emerging expectations and their current realities.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS) usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents' sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05. The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%]) compared to civilians (21 [19.4%]) were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000). The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek health care for self, with civilians reporting a significantly higher prevalence (35 [32.4%]) than did military respondents (20 [15.4%]) (P=0.002). The military respondents were clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all the variants of emotional violence than the civilians (P=0.00). The commonest form of physical violence against women was "being slapped or having something thrown at them, that could hurt", which was markedly higher in the military (43 [33.1%]) than in the civilian population (10 [9.3%]), (P<0.05). IPV is a significant public health problem in Abuja, and the military population is clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all forms of IPV compared to the civilian population. The military should encourage and finance research on effect of military operations and posttraumatic stress disorders on family relationships with a view of developing evidence-based treatment models for military personnel.
    International Journal of Women's Health 01/2015; 7:287. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S79176
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this research, we used a multi-level contextual-effects analysis to disentangle the household- and community-level associations between income and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Bangladesh. Our analyses of data from 2,668 women interviewed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women showed that household income was negatively associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. Controlling for residence in a low-income household, living in a low-income community was not associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. These results support a household-level, not community-level, relationship between income and IPV in Bangladesh. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Violence Against Women 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1077801215576938 · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem that is significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with attitudes toward wife beating among women in Bangladesh. From the sixth Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS-2011) interview data, 17,842 women were included in this study. A woman's age, household economic status, education (including her husband's), employment status, residence, region, decision-making autonomy, and religion were assessed in relation to acceptance or justification of wife beating under five hypothetical situations: if the wife burns the food, argues with husband, goes out without telling her husband, neglects the children, and if she refuses to have sexual intercourse with her husband. Of all the women who accept being beaten by their husbands, 23% accept it as a result of an argument, 18% due to neglecting their children, 17% due to going out without their husband's permission, 8% due to refusal of sex with husband, and 4% due to burning the food. Low household economic status, women's lower education, and being Muslim are significant factors for a woman to accept being beaten under all five hypothetical situations. Bangladesh has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly when poverty, low level of education, and unequal power in the family makes women vulnerable to gender-based domestic violence like IPV.


Available from
Aug 12, 2014