The utility of megavoltage computed tomography images from a helical tomotherapy system for setup verification purposes
ABSTRACT To evaluate the utility of relatively low-dose megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images from a clinical helical tomotherapy system for setup verification purposes.
Cross-sectional kilovolt computed tomography (kVCT) images were obtained for treatment planning purposes on a diagnostic third-generation CT scanner, followed by MVCT images from a helical tomotherapy system in 8 pet dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors. The kVCT and MVCT images were aligned for setup verification purposes, allowing repositioning before treatment delivery.
Tumors are readily visualized on the MVCT images. At a dose of 2-3 cGy, the MVCT images are of sufficient quality for verification of treatment setup, but soft-tissue contrast is inferior to that with conventional kVCT. The MV and kVCT images were successfully aligned. When necessary, patients undergoing helical tomotherapy were repositioned before treatment.
Megavoltage CT image quality is sufficient for tumor identification and three-dimensional setup verification in dogs with spontaneous tumors. The MVCT images can be aligned with the planning kVCT to ensure proper patient registration before treatment. Image alignment was successful in these canine patients, despite no skin markings defining patient positioning between the two scans. MVCT images facilitate setup verification, and their tomographic nature offers improvements over conventional portal imaging.
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ABSTRACT: As rigid image registration becomes unreliable in the presence of involuntary organ motion, we present a novel approach to register CT images using stable bony landmarks for image-guided patient setup. Using 3D Volumetric Image Registration (3DVIR) technique, bony anatomy is volumetrically-classified as registration landmark, while soft tissues are ignored. Based on 4DCT, it was found that the spine, posterior ribs and clavicles do not move with respiration and remain registered throughout the breathing cycle. However, mutual information based registration produces an error of 1-2 mm due to moving soft tissues. It is suggested that the 3DVIR can improve image-guided setup.International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology 01/2012; 8(2/3):259 - 273. DOI:10.1504/IJBET.2012.046090
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ABSTRACT: Successful development of novel cancer drugs depends on well-reasoned scientific drug discovery, rigorous preclinical development, and carefully conceived clinical trials. Failure in any of these steps contributes to poor rates of approval for new drugs to treat cancer. As technological and scientific advances have opened the door to a variety of novel approaches to cancer drug discovery and development, preclinical models that can answer questions about the activity and safety of novel therapies are increasingly necessary. The advance of a drug to clinical trials based on information from preclinical models presupposes that the models convey informative data for future use in human patients with cancer. The study of novel cancer drugs using in vitro models is highly controllable, reproducible, relatively inexpensive, and linked to high throughput. However, these models fail to reproduce many of the complex features of human cancer. Mouse models address some of these limitations but have important biological differences from human cancer. The integration of studies using pet dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors as models in the development path can answer questions not adequately addressed in conventional models and is therefore gaining attention and interest in drug development communities. The study of novel cancer drugs in dogs with naturally occurring tumors allows drug assessment in a cancer that shares many fundamental features with the human cancer condition, and thus provides an opportunity to answer questions that inform the cancer drug development path in ways not possible in more conventional models.ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 01/2010; 51(3):214-20. DOI:10.1093/ilar.51.3.214
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ABSTRACT: Potential areas where megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) could be used are second- and third-phase treatment planning in 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, adaptive radiation therapy, single fraction palliative treatment and for the treatment of patients with metal prostheses. A feasibility study was done on using MV cone beam CT (CBCT) images generated by proprietary 3D reconstruction software based on the FDK algorithm for megavoltage treatment planning. The reconstructed images were converted to a DICOM file set. The pixel values of megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) were rescaled to those of kV CT for use with a treatment planning system. A calibration phantom was designed and developed for verification of geometric accuracy and CT number calibration. The distance measured between two marker points on the CBCT image and the physical dimension on the phantom were in good agreement. Point dose verification for a 10 cm x 10 cm beam at a gantry angle of 0 degrees and SAD of 100 cm were performed for a 6 MV beam for both kV and MV CBCT images. The point doses were found to vary between +/-6.1% of the dose calculated from the kV CT image. The isodose curves for 6 MV for both kV CT and MV CBCT images were within 2% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement. A plan with three beams was performed on MV CBCT, simulating a treatment plan for cancer of the pituitary. The distribution obtained was compared with those corresponding to that obtained using the kV CT. This study has shown that treatment planning with MV cone beam CT images is feasible.Physics in Medicine and Biology 05/2009; 54(7):2067-77. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/54/7/014