Relationship between chronic painful physical condition and insomnia
ABSTRACT A chronic painful physical condition (CPPC) can be a major cause of sleep disturbances. Few community-based surveys examined the specific relationship between these two conditions.
Eighteen thousand, nine hundred and eighty participants aged 15 years or older from five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain) and representative of approximately 206 millions Europeans were interviewed by telephone. The interview included questions about sleeping habits, health, sleep and mental disorders. Painful physical conditions were ascertained through questions about medical treatment, consultations and/or hospitalizations for medical reasons and a list of 42 diseases. A painful physical condition was considered chronic when it lasted at least six months. Insomnia symptoms were defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or non-restorative sleep, present at least three nights per week, lasting at least one month, and accompanied by daytime consequences.
(1) The point prevalence of at least one CPPC was set at 17.1% (95% CI: 16.5-17.6%) in the sample. (2) Difficulty initiating sleep was found in 5.1% (95% CI: 4.8-5.4%) of the sample, disrupted sleep in 7.5% (95% CI: 7.2-7.9%); early morning awakenings in 4.8% (95% CI: 7.2-7.9%) and non-restorative sleep in 4.5% (95% CI: 4.2-4.8%). (3) More than 40% of individuals with insomnia symptoms reported at least one CPPC. (4) CPPC was associated with more frequent difficulty or inability to resume sleep once awake and a shorter sleep duration. (5) In middle-aged subjects (45-64 years of age), CPPC was associated with longer insomnia duration. At any age, insomnia with CPPC was associated with a greater number of daytime consequences (average of four consequences) than in insomnia without CPPC (average of 2.3 consequences). (6) In multivariate models, CPPC, especially backaches and joint/articular diseases, were at least as importantly associated with insomnia than were mood disorders with odds ratios ranging from 4.1 to 5.0 for backaches and from 3.0 to 4.8 for joint/articular diseases.
CPPC is associated with a worsening of insomnia on several aspects: a greater number of insomnia symptoms, more severe daytime consequences and more chronic insomnia situation. CPPC plays a major role on insomnia. Its place as major contributive factor for insomnia is as much important as mood disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and/or orofacial pain (OFP) frequently experience poor sleep quality or suffer from comorbid sleep disorders. Study results suggest that in chronic pain patients, an improvement in sleep quality critically influences the outcomes of interventions on mood and pain. Yet, only a few studies have systematically sought to evaluate the sleep quality of TMD/OFP patients. Standardized and validated self-reported instruments designed for screening sleep disturbances or for the evaluation of treatment outcomes in this population would therefore enhance evidence and improve treatment options. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to review the self-reported instruments that measure sleep dysfunction in studies on TMD/OFP patients, by conducting a systematic literature search; (2) to evaluate their clinimetric evidence; and (3) to provide guidance for future research using such instruments. A total of 26 papers, using eight different instruments, were identified. The most frequently used questionnaires and the only ones with good clinimetric properties were the Insomnia Severity Index followed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. They were most reliable, valid and time-effective for measuring sleep dysfunctions in patients with TMD/OFP, with only a few practical constraints. Yet, in future studies, an assessment of the relationship between sleep disturbances and chronic pain will have to include instruments measuring the effect of mediator variables such as cognitive or emotional arousal. Research is required to clarify if existing self-reported questionnaires measuring these aspects will promote further insights or if there is a need for new instruments. This future research direction would blend into the overall biopsychosocial concept of TMD/OFP diagnoses and treatment.Sleep Medicine 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.07.023 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbances and the contributing factors in middle-aged women. In a cross-sectional design of the long-term, prospective follow-up study project of 1278 families from a random population sample, the mothers of 15 year-olds were asked to fill in a questionnaire about sleep, health, health related quality of life, and health behavior. Quality of sleep was reported by 32% of women as good, 43% quite good, 12% average, 10% quite poor and 3% as poor. The most frequent sleep disturbance was awakenings in the night, which 60% of the women experienced at least once a week. Difficulty falling asleep and waking too early in the morning were reported as a weekly occurrence by 16% and 20%, respectively. Morning sleepiness was experienced by 42% and daytime sleepiness by 32%. Chronic diseases and use of medications was associated with various sleep disturbances. Both somatic and mental symptoms increased the risk for sleep disturbances. Almost one-quarter of middle-aged women is dissatisfied with their quality of sleep. Women who have chronic disease or use of medications for basic diseases often suffer from sleep disturbance, which is also associated with the health related quality of life. Further analysis of the risk factors is needed to improve the sleep health of middle-aged women.Maturitas 12/2013; 77(3). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.11.008 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia in veterans with epilepsy, it remains understudied. Our aim was to identify the associations of insomnia with epilepsy, comorbidities, and treatment-related variables in South Florida veterans. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of veterans attending an epilepsy clinic over 18months. Participants completed standardized assessments of seizure and sleep. Insomnia was defined as 1) difficulty with sleep onset, maintenance, or premature awakenings with daytime consequences or 2) sedative-hypnotic use on most nights of the previous month. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five veterans (87% male, age 56±15years) were included: 66 reporting insomnia (40%). In logistic regression analysis, insomnia was significantly associated with post-traumatic seizure etiology, lamotrigine prescription, and mood and psychotic disorders. Female gender and levetiracetam treatment were associated with lower odds for insomnia. CONCLUSION: Insomnia was associated with post-traumatic epilepsy, mood/psychotic comorbidities, and antiepileptic regimen. Insomnia represents an under-recognized opportunity to improve comprehensive epilepsy care.Epilepsy & Behavior 02/2013; 27(1):159-164. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.01.008 · 2.06 Impact Factor