Relationship between chronic painful condition and insomnia

Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 3430 W. Bayshore Road, Suite 102, Palo Alto, Stanford, CA 94303, USA.
Journal of Psychiatric Research (Impact Factor: 3.96). 04/2005; 39(2):151-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2004.07.001
Source: PubMed


A chronic painful physical condition (CPPC) can be a major cause of sleep disturbances. Few community-based surveys examined the specific relationship between these two conditions.
Eighteen thousand, nine hundred and eighty participants aged 15 years or older from five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain) and representative of approximately 206 millions Europeans were interviewed by telephone. The interview included questions about sleeping habits, health, sleep and mental disorders. Painful physical conditions were ascertained through questions about medical treatment, consultations and/or hospitalizations for medical reasons and a list of 42 diseases. A painful physical condition was considered chronic when it lasted at least six months. Insomnia symptoms were defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or non-restorative sleep, present at least three nights per week, lasting at least one month, and accompanied by daytime consequences.
(1) The point prevalence of at least one CPPC was set at 17.1% (95% CI: 16.5-17.6%) in the sample. (2) Difficulty initiating sleep was found in 5.1% (95% CI: 4.8-5.4%) of the sample, disrupted sleep in 7.5% (95% CI: 7.2-7.9%); early morning awakenings in 4.8% (95% CI: 7.2-7.9%) and non-restorative sleep in 4.5% (95% CI: 4.2-4.8%). (3) More than 40% of individuals with insomnia symptoms reported at least one CPPC. (4) CPPC was associated with more frequent difficulty or inability to resume sleep once awake and a shorter sleep duration. (5) In middle-aged subjects (45-64 years of age), CPPC was associated with longer insomnia duration. At any age, insomnia with CPPC was associated with a greater number of daytime consequences (average of four consequences) than in insomnia without CPPC (average of 2.3 consequences). (6) In multivariate models, CPPC, especially backaches and joint/articular diseases, were at least as importantly associated with insomnia than were mood disorders with odds ratios ranging from 4.1 to 5.0 for backaches and from 3.0 to 4.8 for joint/articular diseases.
CPPC is associated with a worsening of insomnia on several aspects: a greater number of insomnia symptoms, more severe daytime consequences and more chronic insomnia situation. CPPC plays a major role on insomnia. Its place as major contributive factor for insomnia is as much important as mood disorders.

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    • "For example, 50–88% of patients with chronic pain also suffer from sleep disorders [11] [12] [13]. Alternatively, > 40% of patients with insomnia also report chronic pain [6]. Several pharmaceutical studies, including studies on eszopiclone [14], triazolam [15], or pregabalin [16], showed a simultaneous improvement of both sleep and pain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is strong evidence indicating an interaction between sleep and pain. However, the size of this effect, as well as the clinical relevance, is unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane, Psyndex, Psycinfo, and Scopus. By conducting a random-effect model, the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) of sleep deprivation on pain perception was calculated. Studies that investigated any kind of sleep deprivation in conjunction with a pain measurement were included. In cases of several pain measurements within a study, the average effect size of all measures was calculated. Results: Five eligible studies (N = 190) for the between-group analysis and ten studies (N = 266) for the within-group analysis were identified. Sleep deprivation showed a medium effect in the between-group analysis (SMD = 0.62; CI95: 0.12, 1.12; z = 2.43; p = 0.015) and a large effect in the within-group analysis (SMD = 1.49; CI95: 0.82, 2.17; z = 4.35; p <0.0001). The test for heterogeneity was not significant in the between-group analysis (Q = 5.29; df = 4; p = 0.2584), but it was significant in the within-group analysis (Q = 53.49; df = 9; p <0.0001). Conclusion: This meta-analysis confirms a medium effect (SMD = 0.62) of sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified.
    Sleep Medicine 08/2015; 16(11). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2015.07.022 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Pain may be associated with sleep instability, disruption of non-rapid eye movement (REM) to REM sleep cycles continuity and excessive sleep fragmentation [24], which may in turn increase the perception of unrefreshing or nonrestorative sleep (NRS). Non-restorative sleep refers to the subjective experience of sleep as insufficiently refreshing or to the feeling that sleep is restless , light or of poor quality, even though traditionally assessed objective sleep parameters (eg, total duration, sleep stage distribution ) appear to be normal [25] [28]. Different etiologies for NRS and insomnia symptoms, such as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, are discussed in the literature [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and/or orofacial pain (OFP) frequently experience poor sleep quality or suffer from comorbid sleep disorders. Study results suggest that in chronic pain patients, an improvement in sleep quality critically influences the outcomes of interventions on mood and pain. Yet, only a few studies have systematically sought to evaluate the sleep quality of TMD/OFP patients. Standardized and validated self-reported instruments designed for screening sleep disturbances or for the evaluation of treatment outcomes in this population would therefore enhance evidence and improve treatment options. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to review the self-reported instruments that measure sleep dysfunction in studies on TMD/OFP patients, by conducting a systematic literature search; (2) to evaluate their clinimetric evidence; and (3) to provide guidance for future research using such instruments. A total of 26 papers, using eight different instruments, were identified. The most frequently used questionnaires and the only ones with good clinimetric properties were the Insomnia Severity Index followed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. They were most reliable, valid and time-effective for measuring sleep dysfunctions in patients with TMD/OFP, with only a few practical constraints. Yet, in future studies, an assessment of the relationship between sleep disturbances and chronic pain will have to include instruments measuring the effect of mediator variables such as cognitive or emotional arousal. Research is required to clarify if existing self-reported questionnaires measuring these aspects will promote further insights or if there is a need for new instruments. This future research direction would blend into the overall biopsychosocial concept of TMD/OFP diagnoses and treatment.
    Sleep Medicine 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.07.023 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Elderly people with no apparent disease participated in these experiments, and the subjects were classified as having sleep disorder based on interviews assessing the subjects' sleep disturbances. A variety of issues, including psychological problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, and stress [13, 14]), and painful physical conditions [15, 16], may cause sleep disorders. Research on the elderly has shown that sleep disorder is related to chronic disease, such as heart disease, lung disease, and osteoporosis [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L∗, a∗, b∗) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 04/2014; 2014:323645. DOI:10.1155/2014/323645 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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