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Lubet, R. A. et al. Efficacy of Targretin on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancers: prevention and therapy dose-response curves and effects on proliferation and apoptosis. Carcinogenesis 26, 441-448

Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza North, Suite 2110, 6130 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.27). 03/2005; 26(2):441-8. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgh338
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Various aspects of the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties of the RXR receptor agonist Targretin (LGD 1069) were examined in the methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced model of mammary cancer. The administration of Targretin at dose levels of 60, 20 or 6.7 mg/kg body wt/day by gavage decreased the number of mammary tumors by 96, 85 and 78%, respectively. When Targretin was administered in the diet at 92 and 275 mg/kg diet cancer multiplicities were reduced by 78 and 92%, respectively. A wider range of dietary doses of Targretin at 15, 50 and 150 mg/kg diet reduced the number of mammary tumors by 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. Treatment of rats with different regimens of Targretin (250 mg/kg diet) yielded cancer multiplicities of 4.3 for non-treated rats, 0.5 for rats treated continuously with Targretin, 2.1 for rats treated with Targretin for 8 weeks followed by 10 weeks of the control diet and 1.6 for rats treated with Targretin alternating 3 days on and 4 days off. Targretin was also examined as a therapeutic agent by treating rats with at least one palpable mammary tumor for 5 weeks. A high dose of Targretin (272 mg/kg diet) caused partial or complete regression of approximately 65% of the cancers over this time period. In contrast, in animals treated with 15 mg Targretin/kg diet only 1 of 12 cancers showed significant regression. Finally, the effect of a limited exposure to Targretin (7 days) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in small mammary tumors was determined. Targretin at 150 mg/kg diet strongly decreased proliferation (75%) and increased apoptosis (300%), while a lower dose of Targretin (15 mg/kg diet, which still prevented 30% of cancers) had no effect on apoptosis but did decrease cell proliferation. Determination of serum IGF1 levels showed that treatment of rats with highly effective doses of Targretin at 272 mg/kg diet or at 60 or 20 mg/kg body wt/day by gavage caused significantly decreased serum IGF1 levels.

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