Lubet, R. A. et al. Efficacy of Targretin on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancers: prevention and therapy dose-response curves and effects on proliferation and apoptosis. Carcinogenesis 26, 441-448

Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza North, Suite 2110, 6130 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.27). 03/2005; 26(2):441-8. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgh338
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Various aspects of the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties of the RXR receptor agonist Targretin (LGD 1069) were examined in the methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced model of mammary cancer. The administration of Targretin at dose levels of 60, 20 or 6.7 mg/kg body wt/day by gavage decreased the number of mammary tumors by 96, 85 and 78%, respectively. When Targretin was administered in the diet at 92 and 275 mg/kg diet cancer multiplicities were reduced by 78 and 92%, respectively. A wider range of dietary doses of Targretin at 15, 50 and 150 mg/kg diet reduced the number of mammary tumors by 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. Treatment of rats with different regimens of Targretin (250 mg/kg diet) yielded cancer multiplicities of 4.3 for non-treated rats, 0.5 for rats treated continuously with Targretin, 2.1 for rats treated with Targretin for 8 weeks followed by 10 weeks of the control diet and 1.6 for rats treated with Targretin alternating 3 days on and 4 days off. Targretin was also examined as a therapeutic agent by treating rats with at least one palpable mammary tumor for 5 weeks. A high dose of Targretin (272 mg/kg diet) caused partial or complete regression of approximately 65% of the cancers over this time period. In contrast, in animals treated with 15 mg Targretin/kg diet only 1 of 12 cancers showed significant regression. Finally, the effect of a limited exposure to Targretin (7 days) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in small mammary tumors was determined. Targretin at 150 mg/kg diet strongly decreased proliferation (75%) and increased apoptosis (300%), while a lower dose of Targretin (15 mg/kg diet, which still prevented 30% of cancers) had no effect on apoptosis but did decrease cell proliferation. Determination of serum IGF1 levels showed that treatment of rats with highly effective doses of Targretin at 272 mg/kg diet or at 60 or 20 mg/kg body wt/day by gavage caused significantly decreased serum IGF1 levels.

Download full-text


Available from: Vernon E Steele, Oct 06, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: "In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biomedical Sciences." Major advisor: Michael Pereira. Includes abstract. Document formatted into pages: v, 196 p. Title from title page of PDF document. Thesis (M.S.)--Medical University of Ohio, 2005. Bibliography: pages 64-66, 90-97, 125-131, 155-195. Text data with some col. graphics. Abstract and citation at ETD Center are HTML encoded; full-text in portable document format (PDF). System requirements: Internet connectivity; World Wide Web browser; PDF viewer. Mode of access: World Wide Web.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bexarotene (Targretin), is a synthetic high-affinity RXR receptor agonist with limited affinity for RAR receptors. Bexarotene has shown efficacy in a phase I/II trial of non-small-cell lung cancers. However, the chemopreventive efficacy of bexarotene has not been determined in mouse lung cancer models. In this study, we have investigated the ability of bexarotene to inhibit lung tumor progression in the mutant A/J mouse models with genetic alterations in p53 or K-ras, two of the most commonly altered genes in human lung tumorigenesis. Mice were administered vinyl carbamate (VC), a carcinogen, by a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) at 6 weeks of age. Bexarotene was given by gavage starting at 16 weeks after VC and was continued for 12 weeks. Although all mice developed lung tumors, only 7% of lung tumors were adenocarcinomas in wild-type mice, whereas 22 and 26% of lung tumors were adenocarcinomas in p53 transgenic or K-ras heterozygous deficient mice. Bexarotene inhibited both tumor multiplicity and tumor volume in mice of all three genotypes. Furthermore, bexarotene reduced the progression of adenoma to adenocarcinoma by approximately 50% in both p53(wt/wt)K-ras(ko/wt) and p53(wt/wt)K-ras(wt/wt) mice. Thus, bexarotene appears to be an effective preventive agent against lung tumor growth and progression.
    Oncogene 04/2006; 25(9):1320-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1209180 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A rexinoid, targretin, and two retinoids, 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA) and 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4HPR), were examined for their effects on gene expression in rat mammary gland, liver, and lung tissues. The chemopreventive effects of these agents have largely been attributed to their ability to interact with retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and/or retinoid X receptors (RXR). Targretin interacts with the RXR receptors. 9cRA interacts with both the RAR and RXR receptors, whereas 4HPR has a moderate affinity primarily for RAR gamma. Based on previous studies on mammary chemoprevention, targretin (150 mg/kg diet), 9cRA (100 mg/kg diet), and 4HPR (782 mg/kg diet), were administered to rats continually in their diet for 7 days. Tissue- and agent-specific expression differences were determined by comparing tissues from treated rats with those from rats given a control diet. There were significantly more changes associated with targretin than 9cRA or 4HPR. Only a limited number of expression changes were found with 4HPR treatment. For each organ, targretin- and 9cRA-treated tissues clustered closely together, whereas 4HPR-treated tissues clustered with the tissues from the control diet group. In contrast to 9cRA treatment, targretin treatment altered genes that involved fatty acid metabolism and modulation of various cytochromes P450 in the liver, clearly demonstrating the very disparate nature of these two retinoids. These expression signatures could provide useful pharmacodynamic biomarkers for retinoid treatment and chemoprevention.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2006; 5(4):1060-72. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0322 · 6.11 Impact Factor
Show more