Comparison of the effects of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on carnitine levels, ambulatory activity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brain of old rats.
ABSTRACT L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are both used to improve mitochondrial function. Although it has been argued that ALC is better than l-carnitine in absorption and activity, there has been no experiment to compare the two compounds at the same dose. In the present experiment, the effects of ALC and L-carnitine on the levels of free, acyl, and total L-carnitine in plasma and brain, rat ambulatory activity, and biomarkers of oxidative stress are investigated. Aged rats (23 months old) were given ALC or L-carnitine at 0.15% in drinking water for 4 weeks. L-carnitine and ALC were similar in elevating carnitine levels in plasma and brain. Both increased ambulatory activity similarly. However, ALC decreased the lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) in the old rat brain, while L-carnitine did not. ALC decreased the extent of oxidized nucleotides (oxo8dG/oxo8G) immunostaining in the hippocampal CA1 and cortex, while L-carnitine did not. ALC decreased nitrotyrosine immunostaining in the hippocampal CA1 and white matter, while L-carnitine did not. In conclusion, ALC and L-carnitine were similar in increasing ambulatory activity in old rats and elevating carnitine levels in blood and brain. However, ALC was effective, unlike L-carnitine, in decreasing oxidative damage, including MDA, oxo8dG/oxo8G, and nitrotyrosine, in old rat brain. These data suggest that ALC may be a better dietary supplement than L-carnitine.
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ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the beneficial effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on subacute chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced alterations in serum lipid profiles and some biomarkers of oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Twenty-eight adult male rats divided into four groups of seven animals each (group I–IV) were used: I (S/oil) received soya oil (2 ml kg−1), II (ALC) received ALC (300 mg kg−1); III (CPF) received CPF (8.5 mg kg−1 ∼ 1/10th LD50); IV (ALC+CPF) was pretreated with ALC (300 mg kg−1) and then exposed to CPF (8.5 mg kg−1), 30 min later. The treatment was orally for 28 days duration. Sera obtained from blood samples were evaluated for the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c), and atherogenic index (AI) were calculated. The result showed that elevated levels of TG, TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c, AI, and MDA, and the decreased levels of HDL-c, CAT, and SOD induced by CPF were modulated by ALC. It was concluded that ALC ameliorated the alterations in serum lipid and oxidative stress induced by CPF exposure in the rats, partly through its antioxidant properties.Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 03/2013; 95(3). · 0.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed "mitochondrial nutrients" (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and l-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with "classical" antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11/2014; 15(11):20169-20208. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to examine the effects of L-carnitine on pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chickens reared at high altitude and exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. A total of 192 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments and 4 replicates of 12 chicks. A basal diet composed of mainly corn and soybean meal was formulated and served as a control. Three additional treatments were made by supplementing graded levels of L-carnitine (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg). Chicks received dietary treatments at free access from 1 to 42 days of age. Results indicated that feeding L-carnitine at 100 mg/kg caused a significant increase in plasma nitric oxide (NO) with concomitant decrease in plasma malonedialdehyde (MDA). The Lead II electrocardiogram indicated reductions of S wave amplitude for all three doses of L-carnitine relative to the control and the difference between the birds that received L-carnitine at 50 mg/kg and the control was significant (P＜0.05). The right ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) tended to decline when L-carnitine supplemented to diets. In conclusion, L-carnitine reduced ascites mortality in broiler chickens by increased NO production, reduced MDA concentration, and reduced right ventricular hypertrophy.The Journal of Poultry Science 02/2013; 50(2):143-149. · 0.79 Impact Factor