Primary lower urinary tract reconstruction for nonfunctioning renal moieties associated with obstructing ureteroceles.
ABSTRACT Upper pole heminephrectomy is the conventional treatment for severely compromised nonfunctioning renal units associated with ureteroceles due to the potential morbidity of leaving a nonfunctioning renal moiety in place. This approach often fails to address the pathological anatomical defect present at the bladder level, and during long-term followup the majority of patients require subsequent lower tract surgery due to persistent ureterocele, new or persistent vesicoureteral reflux, or recurrent infections. We determined the success of primary lower urinary tract reconstruction for nonfunctioning renal moieties and the morbidity associated with leaving nonfunctioning renal units in situ.
We present the collective experience of 2 institutions using definitive lower urinary tract reconstruction without upper tract ablative surgery in 16 patients with duplex collecting systems and an associated nonfunctioning renal moiety due to obstructing ureteroceles.
At a mean followup of 62 months upper tract dilatation was decreased or completely resolved in all patients, no loss of renal function was present and 15 of 16 patients (94%) had no evidence of persistent reflux. Postoperative complications in the form of a urinary tract infection occurred in 2 of 16 patients (13%). No patient was febrile. No patient had development of hypertension, proteinuria or tumor during followup.
We believe that primary, single stage, lower urinary tract reconstruction in children with severely compromised or nonfunctioning renal moieties damaged by ureteroceles is superior to upper urinary tract ablative surgery, successfully correcting the obstructive or refluxing pathology with minimal morbidity and risk during long-term followup.
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ABSTRACT: Surgical approach to children with complicated ureteral duplication is discussed controversially. Our aim was to determine the outcome of children with complicated renal duplication undergoing a single-stage surgical approach with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open bladder reconstruction. Data of patients from 2004 to 2008 were investigated retrospectively. Outcome was analyzed in terms of postoperative course, renal function, urinary tract infection and functional voiding. Thirteen patients were treated with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and reconstruction of the lower urinary tract in a single-stage approach. Median age at operation was 15 months (2-63 m). One girl had a renal triplication. 7/13 patients presented with an ectopic ureterocele, two with an ectopic ureter, severe vesicoureteral reflux occurred in 6 patients. All patients had non-functioning renal moieties. Mean operative time was 239 min (129-309; SD 50). One re-operation was necessary 4 years after primary surgery due to a pole remnant. All patients had uneventful recoveries without evidence of recurrent UTI. Postoperative 99mTc-MAG3 scans showed no significant reduction of partial renal function (p = 0.4), and no signs of obstruction (p = 0.188). During a median follow-up of 60 months (49-86), dysfunctional voiding occurred in one patient. In children with complicated ureteral duplication a definitive single-stage procedure is feasible and shows excellent functional results.Pediatric Surgery International 09/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Although ureteroureterostomy (UU) is an established procedure for the treatment of duplex anomalies, there may be a reluctance to apply this approach to patients with poor upper pole function and/or marked degrees of ureteral dilation. Methods An IRB-approved retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing UU at The Children’s hospital between 2006 and present was performed. All patients underwent an end-to-side anastomosis with a double-J stent left in the lower pole ureter. Laparoscopic repairs were done ‘high’ and open repairs were done ‘low’. If the upper pole ureter remained massively dilated after transection, the ureter was partially closed to reduce the length of the anastomosis. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, surgical interventions, imaging studies and outcomes. Results A total of 41 patients (43 renal units) were identified. There were 35 females and six males with an average age at surgery of 2.3 years (range 55 days to 15.9 years) and an average follow up of 2.8 years. Diagnosis included ureterocele (17), ectopic duplex ureter (25) and ureteral triplication (1). Thirty-six patients underwent UU only and five underwent UU with simultaneous lower pole reimplantation. Twelve of the 41 patients (29%) underwent laparoscopic repair. Twelve of the 43 renal units (28%) required ureteral tapering, of which three were performed laparoscopically. Preoperative median upper pole function was 17% (0 to 35%). Six patients had no measurable function and ten had < 15%. No patient developed lower pole hydronephrosis in the follow-up period. There were two complications: one patient was found to have a post-operative UVJ stricture and the second had an anastomotic stricture. Conclusion Ureteroureterostomy is a safe and effective technique for the reconstruction of duplex anomalies, even with a massively dilated and poorly functioning upper pole moiety. With no identifiable negative effect on the lower pole system, the concept of automatically removing ‘dysplastic’ upper pole segments can be challenged.Journal of Pediatric Urology 08/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyse different treatment modalities, functional outcome and continence in children treated for duplex-system ureterocele and to review the relevant literature. The medical records of patients with duplex-system ureterocele treated between 2001 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-two cases were identified. Five patients underwent incision of the ureterocele as initial procedure. It was curative in only one patient. Seven patients underwent upper-pole nephroureterectomy. It was curative in 4 cases. Five patients underwent excision of ureterocele and common-sheath reimplant, and the remaining 5 patients had upper-pole nephroureterectomy and simultaneous excision of ureterocele with lower-moiety ureteric reimplantation. These surgeries were curative in all patients. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 84 months. Functional outcome was good in all patients. Fourteen patients were continent at follow-up, and continence was not assessed in the other 8 because of young age. Our data suggest a higher rate of secondary procedures if there is retained ureterocele. Data also suggest that complete reconstruction can be safely performed in a young infant without any adverse effect on continence.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 12/2013; · 1.19 Impact Factor