Primary lower urinary tract reconstruction for nonfunctioning renal moieties associated with obstructing ureteroceles
ABSTRACT Upper pole heminephrectomy is the conventional treatment for severely compromised nonfunctioning renal units associated with ureteroceles due to the potential morbidity of leaving a nonfunctioning renal moiety in place. This approach often fails to address the pathological anatomical defect present at the bladder level, and during long-term followup the majority of patients require subsequent lower tract surgery due to persistent ureterocele, new or persistent vesicoureteral reflux, or recurrent infections. We determined the success of primary lower urinary tract reconstruction for nonfunctioning renal moieties and the morbidity associated with leaving nonfunctioning renal units in situ.
We present the collective experience of 2 institutions using definitive lower urinary tract reconstruction without upper tract ablative surgery in 16 patients with duplex collecting systems and an associated nonfunctioning renal moiety due to obstructing ureteroceles.
At a mean followup of 62 months upper tract dilatation was decreased or completely resolved in all patients, no loss of renal function was present and 15 of 16 patients (94%) had no evidence of persistent reflux. Postoperative complications in the form of a urinary tract infection occurred in 2 of 16 patients (13%). No patient was febrile. No patient had development of hypertension, proteinuria or tumor during followup.
We believe that primary, single stage, lower urinary tract reconstruction in children with severely compromised or nonfunctioning renal moieties damaged by ureteroceles is superior to upper urinary tract ablative surgery, successfully correcting the obstructive or refluxing pathology with minimal morbidity and risk during long-term followup.
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ABSTRACT: To report our experience of common sheath reimplantation (CSR) for ectopic ureterocele (EU) combined with ureteral duplication, describing success rates and postoperative complications, along with risk factors for developing postoperative incontinence. When the upper tract approach is not indicated in patients with EU, a bladder-level approach, involving either CSR or total reconstruction, is the remaining option. However, concerns exist about the high morbidity of bladder-level approaches. We retrospectively examined the postoperative results of 39 patients who underwent CSR between January 2001 and December 2012. Risk factors for the development of postoperative incontinence and decreases in differential renal function (DRF) were additionally analyzed. The median age at operation was 16.5 months. After CSR, upper urinary tract dilatation decreased in 36 patients (92.3%). During a median follow-up of 75.9 months, an additional operation was required in 7 patients (17.9%). Postoperative incontinence developed in 3 patients (7.7%). Median preoperative DRF was significantly lower in the postoperative incontinence group (P = .004). DRF decreased postoperatively in 5 of 36 patients (13.9%). No preoperative factors were related to the decrease in DRF. No patient developed hypertension or proteinuria. CSR decompressed the upper urinary tract effectively in our EU patients. Postoperative incontinence does not seem to be related to operation factors, but with preoperative DRF. When the upper tract approach is not indicated, CSR is a reasonable alternative. Total reconstruction is unnecessary as the remnant upper pole kidney after CSR does not lead to complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Urology 02/2015; 85(2):457-62. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2014.10.014 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyse different treatment modalities, functional outcome and continence in children treated for duplex-system ureterocele and to review the relevant literature. The medical records of patients with duplex-system ureterocele treated between 2001 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-two cases were identified. Five patients underwent incision of the ureterocele as initial procedure. It was curative in only one patient. Seven patients underwent upper-pole nephroureterectomy. It was curative in 4 cases. Five patients underwent excision of ureterocele and common-sheath reimplant, and the remaining 5 patients had upper-pole nephroureterectomy and simultaneous excision of ureterocele with lower-moiety ureteric reimplantation. These surgeries were curative in all patients. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 84 months. Functional outcome was good in all patients. Fourteen patients were continent at follow-up, and continence was not assessed in the other 8 because of young age. Our data suggest a higher rate of secondary procedures if there is retained ureterocele. Data also suggest that complete reconstruction can be safely performed in a young infant without any adverse effect on continence.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 12/2013; 50(2). DOI:10.1111/jpc.12474 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Although ureteroureterostomy (UU) is an established procedure for the treatment of duplex anomalies, there may be a reluctance to apply this approach to patients with poor upper pole function and/or marked degrees of ureteral dilation. Methods: An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing UU between 2006 and present was performed. All patients underwent an end-to-side anastomosis with a double-J stent left in the lower pole ureter. Laparoscopic repairs were done 'high' and open repairs were done 'low'. If the upper pole ureter remained massively dilated after transection, the ureter was partially closed to reduce the length of the anastomosis. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, surgical interventions, imaging studies and outcomes. Results: A total of 41 patients (43 renal units) were identified. There were 35 females and six males with an average age at surgery of 2.3 years (range 55 days to 15.9 years) and an average follow up of 2.8 years. Diagnosis included ureterocele (17), ectopic duplex ureter (25) and ureteral triplication (1). Thirty-six patients underwent UU only and five underwent UU with simultaneous lower pole reimplantation. Twelve of the 41 patients (29%) underwent laparoscopic repair. Twelve of the 43 renal units (28%) required ureteral tapering, of which three were performed laparoscopically. Preoperative median upper pole function was 17% (0-35%). Six patients had no measurable function and ten had < 15%. No patient developed lower pole hydronephrosis in the follow-up period. There were two complications: one patient was found to have a post-operative ureterovesical junction (UVJ) stricture and the second had an anastomotic stricture. Conclusion: Ureteroureterostomy is a safe and effective technique for the reconstruction of duplex anomalies, even with a massively dilated and poorly functioning upper pole moiety.Journal of Pediatric Urology 08/2014; 10(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2014.05.003 · 1.41 Impact Factor