Frequent LOH on 22q12.3 and TIMP-3 inactivation occur in the progression to secondary glioblastomas.
ABSTRACT Frequent allelic losses on the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q) in gliomas indicate the presence of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) at this location. However, the target gene(s) residing in this chromosome are still unknown and their putative roles in the development of astrocytic tumors, especially in secondary glioblastoma, have not yet been defined. To compile a precise physical map for the region of common deletions in astrocytic tumors, we performed a high-density loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using 31 polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning 22q in a series of grade II diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, primary glioblastomas, and secondary glioblastomas that had evolved from lower grade astrocytomas. LOH was found at one or more loci in 33% (12/36) of grade II diffuse astrocytomas, in 40% (4/10) of anaplastic astrocytomas, in 41% (26/64) of primary glioblastomas, and in 82% (23/28) of secondary glioblastomas. Characterization of the 22q deletions in primary glioblastomas identified two sites of minimally deleted regions at 22q12.3-13.2 and 22q13.31. Interestingly, 22 of 23 secondary glioblastomas affected shared a deletion in the same small (957 kb) region of 22q12.3, a region in which the human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) is located. Investigation of the promoter methylation and expression of this gene indicated that frequent hypermethylation correlated with loss of TIMP-3 expression in secondary glioblastoma. This epigenetic change was significantly correlated to poor survival in eight patients with grade II diffuse astrocytoma. Our results suggest that a 957 kb locus, located at 22q12.3, may contain the putative TSG, TIMP-3, that appears to be relevant to progression to secondary glioblastoma and subsequently to the prognosis of grade II diffuse astrocytoma. In addition, the possibility of other putative TSGs on 22q12.3-13.2 and 22q13.31 that may also be involved in the development of primary glioblastomas cannot be ruled out.
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ABSTRACT: The CDKN2A locus on chromosome 9p21 contains the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, and is frequently deleted in human neoplasms, including brain tumors. In this study, we screened 34 primary (de novo) glioblastomas and 16 secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade diffuse astrocytomas for alterations of the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, including homozygous deletion by differential PCR, promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. A total of 29 glioblastomas (58%) had a p14ARF homozygous deletion or methylation, and 17 (34%) showed p16INK4a homozygous deletion or methylation. Thirteen glioblastomas showed both p14ARF and p16INK4a homozygous deletion, while nine showed only a p14ARF deletion. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of p14ARF expression in the majority of glioblastomas (38/50, 76%), and this correlated with the gene status, i.e. homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation. There was no significant difference in the overall frequency of p14ARF and p16INK4a alterations between primary and secondary glioblastomas. The analysis of multiple biopsies from the same patients revealed hypermethylation of p14ARF (5/15 cases) and p16INK4a (1/15 cases) already at the stage of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma but consistent absence of homozygous deletions. These results suggest that aberrant p14ARF expression due to homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation is associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary glioblastomas, and that p14ARF promoter methylation is an early event in subset of astrocytomas that undergo malignant progression to secondary glioblastoma.Brain Pathology 05/2001; 11(2):159-68. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme is a clinically and histologically heterogeneous lesion; however, to date, it has not been possible to subdivide glioblastomas on a clinical, histopathological or biological basis. Previous studies have demonstrated that loss of portions of chromosomes 10 and 17 and amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are the most frequent genetic alterations in glioblastoma. We therefore examined 74 glioblastomas from 67 patients for loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 10 and 17, and for amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, to determine whether glioblastomas can be subtyped on a genetic basis. Using Southern blot analysis we were able to detect different patterns of genomic alterations. Eighteen of 67 informative patients were characterized by a loss of heterozygosity on the short arm of chromosome 17 in the tumor tissue. Forty-five of 64 informative patients showed a loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10. Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene was noted in 25 of 67 patients and was restricted to those glioblastomas that had lost portions of chromosome 10. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification occurred significantly more often in patients without chromosome 17p loss than in patients with chromosome 17p loss (p = 0.01). In addition, those glioblastomas with a loss of chromosome 17p occurred in patients significantly younger than those with glioblastomas characterized by EGFR gene amplification (p = 0.001). These data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of glioblastoma and suggest the division of glioblastoma into genetic subsets.Brain Pathology 02/1993; 3(1):19-26. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are important in tumor development and progression. MMP expression has been correlated with advanced clinical stage and poor survival in some tumors, but data for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in SCLC and to evaluate their importance relative to standard prognostic factors. Expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -11, -13, and -14 and TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In situ hybridization was used to confirm expression of specific mRNAs. Clinical data collected included sex, tumor stage, performance status, weight loss, hematology (hemoglobin, WBC, platelets) and biochemistry (sodium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase), treatment, and survival. Samples from 46 patients were evaluated: 30 males, 16 females; 29 limited, 17 extensive stage; 35 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1. Positive IHC staining was evident for MMP-1 and -9 in 60% to 70% of tumor cells, and for MMP-11, -13, and -14 and TIMP-2 and -3 in 70% to 100% of tumor cells. Stromal staining of TIMP-1 to -3 was present in less than 30% of specimens. On multivariate analysis, only stage and decreased tumoral expression of TIMP-1 were significant for response (P =.043). Significant factors for survival were tumor stage (P =.0021); weight loss (P =. 013); and high tumor cell expression of MMP-3 (P =.077), MMP-11 (P =. 031), and MMP-14 (P =.019). MMP and TIMP expression did not differ significantly between stages. MMPs and TIMPs are widely expressed in SCLC. Increased tumoral expression of MMP-3, -11, and -14 were independent negative prognostic factors for survival. The results support the evaluation of synthetic MMP inhibitors in patients with SCLC.Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/1999; 17(6):1802-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor