Crystal structure of the cysteine-rich secretory protein stecrisp reveals that the cysteine-rich domain has a K(+) channel inhibitor-like fold
ABSTRACT Stecrisp from Trimeresurus stejnegeri snake venom belongs to a family of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) that have various functions related to sperm-egg fusion, innate host defense, and the blockage of ion channels. Here we present the crystal structure of stecrisp refined to 1.6-angstrom resolution. It shows that stecrisp contains three regions, namely a PR-1 (pathogenesis-related proteins of group1) domain, a hinge, and a cysteine-rich domain (CRD). A conformation of solvent-exposed and -conserved residues (His60, Glu75, Glu96, and His115) in the PR-1 domain similar to that of their counterparts in homologous structures suggests they may share some molecular mechanism. Three flexible loops of hypervariable sequence surrounding the possible substrate binding site in the PR-1 domain show an evident difference in homologous structures, implying that a great diversity of species- and substrate-specific interactions may be involved in recognition and catalysis. The hinge is fixed by two crossed disulfide bonds formed by four of ten characteristic cysteines in the carboxyl-terminal region and is important for stabilizing the N-terminal PR-1 domain. Spatially separated from the PR-1 domain, CRD possesses a similar fold with two K+ channel inhibitors (Bgk and Shk). Several candidates for the possible functional sites of ion channel blocking are located in a solvent-exposed loop in the CRD. The structure of stecrisp will provide a prototypic architecture for a structural and functional exploration of the diverse members of the CRISP family.
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- "ShK domains are common in the astacin family of metalloendopeptidases, which includes BMP1/Tolloid, meprins, and MMP23 as examples. The ShK motif in astacins is thought to mediate protein-protein interactions . "
ABSTRACT: The microfibril-associated glycoproteins MAGP-1 and MAGP-2 are extracellular matrix proteins that interact with fibrillin to influence microfibril function. The two proteins are related through a 60 amino acid matrix-binding domain but their sequences differ outside of this region. A distinguishing feature of both proteins is their ability to interact with TGFβ family growth factors, Notch and Notch ligands, and multiple elastic fiber proteins. MAGP-2 can also interact with αvβ3 integrins via an RGD sequence that is not found in MAGP-1. Morpholino knockdown of MAGP-1 expression in zebrafish results in abnormal vessel wall architecture and altered vascular network formation. In the mouse, MAGP-1 deficiency had little effect on elastic fibers in blood vessels and lung but resulted in numerous unexpected phenotypes including bone abnormalities, hematopoietic changes, increased fat deposition, diabetes, impaired wound repair, and a bleeding diathesis. Inactivation of the gene for MAGP-2 in mice produced a neutropenia yet had minimal effects on bone or adipose homeostasis. Double knockouts had phenotypes characteristic of each individual knockout as well as several additional traits only seen when both genes are inactivated. A common mechanism underlying all of the traits associated with the knockout phenotypes is altered TGFβ signaling. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of the MAGPs and discusses ideas related to their role in growth factor regulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 05/2015; 103. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2015.05.003 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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- "Interestingly, ten of these cysteine residues are located in the c-terminus as part of the CRISP domain. This CRD has structurally flanking six cysteine repeats that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the Kþ channel-blocking venom from anemones (Alessandri-Haber et al. 1999; Guo et al. 2005; Shikamoto et al. 2005; Lange et al. 2006; Suzuki et al. 2008). The CRD domain in one of the mammalian CRISP has been shown to be associated with the ion channel regulatory activity (Gibbs et al. 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are glycoproteins found exclusively in vertebrates and have broad diversified functions. They are hypothesized to play important roles in mammalian reproduction and in reptilian venom, where they disrupt homeostasis of the prey through several mechanisms, including among others, blockage of cyclic nucleotide-gated and voltage-gated ion channels and inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. We evaluated the molecular evolution of CRISPs in toxicoferan reptiles at both nucleotide and protein levels relative to their nonvenomous mammalian homologs. We show that the evolution of CRISP gene in these reptiles is significantly influenced by positive selection and in snakes (ω = 3.84) more than in lizards (ω = 2.33), whereas mammalian CRISPs were under strong negative selection (CRISP1 = 0.55, CRISP2 = 0.40, and CRISP3 = 0.68). The use of ancestral sequence reconstruction, mapping of mutations on the three-dimensional structure, and detailed evaluation of selection pressures suggests that the toxicoferan CRISPs underwent accelerated evolution aided by strong positive selection and directional mutagenesis, whereas their mammalian homologs are constrained by negative selection. Gene and protein-level selection analyses identified 41 positively selected sites in snakes and 14 sites in lizards. Most of these sites are located on the molecular surface (nearly 76% in snakes and 79% in lizards), whereas the backbone of the protein retains a highly conserved structural scaffold. Nearly 46% of the positively selected sites occur in the cysteine-rich domain of the protein. This directional mutagenesis, where the hotspots of mutations are found on the molecular surface and functional domains of the protein, acts as a diversifying mechanism for the exquisite biological targeting of CRISPs in toxicoferan reptiles. Finally, our analyses suggest that the evolution of toxicoferan-CRISP venoms might have been influenced by the specific predatory mechanism employed by the organism. CRISPs in Elapidae, which mostly employ neurotoxins, have experienced less positive selection pressure (ω = 2.86) compared with the "nonvenomous" colubrids (ω = 4.10) that rely on grip and constriction to capture the prey, and the Viperidae, a lineage that mostly employs haemotoxins (ω = 4.19). Relatively lower omega estimates in Anguimorph lizards (ω = 2.33) than snakes (ω = 3.84) suggests that lizards probably depend more on pace and powerful jaws for predation than venom.Molecular Biology and Evolution 02/2012; 29(7):1807-22. DOI:10.1093/molbev/mss058 · 14.31 Impact Factor
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- "Together, these observations support a role for CRISP1 during rat sperm capacitation. From the finding that the CRD of CRISP proteins from snake venoms, as well as testicular protein CRISP2, are able to regulate different types of ion channels (Guo et al, 2005; Gibbs et al, 2006), it is possible that rat CRISP1 acts as a decapacitation factor through an ion channel regulatory activity located in the CRD of the molecule. "
ABSTRACT: Rat epididymal CRISP1, the first described member of the evolutionarily conserved Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP) family, is expressed in the proximal regions of the epididymis and associates with the sperm during epididymal transit. Evidence indicates the existence of 2 populations of CRISP1 in spermatozoa: a major one, loosely bound, which is released during capacitation and, therefore, proposed as a decapacitating factor; and a minor one, strongly associated with spermatozoa that remains on the cells after capacitation and is proposed to participate in gamete interaction. Originally localized to the dorsal region of capacitated sperm, CRISP1 migrates to the equatorial segment with capacitation and acrosome reaction. Consistent with these localizations, in vitro fertilization experiments support the involvement of CRISP1 in the first step of sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction and subsequent gamete fusion through its interaction with egg-complementary sites. The potential roles of CRISP1 in capacitation and fertilization have been further supported by the finding that capacitated spermatozoa from CRISP1 "knockout" animals exhibit low levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and have an impaired ability to fertilize zona-intact and zona-free eggs in vitro. Moreover, recent evidence from mutant spermatozoa reveals that CRISP1 mediates the stage of sperm binding to the ZP. Altogether, these observations support the view that CRISP1 is a multifunctional protein playing different roles during fertilization through its different associations with and localizations on spermatozoa. We believe these results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in both the fertilization process and the acquisition of sperm-fertilizing ability that occurs during epididymal maturation.Journal of Andrology 03/2011; 32(6):672-8. DOI:10.2164/jandrol.110.012922 · 1.69 Impact Factor