[Spanish GESIDA/Nacional AIDS Plan Recommendations for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Adults (October 2004)].
ABSTRACT This consensus document is an update of antiretroviral therapy (ART) recommendations for adult patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
To formulate these recommendations, a panel composed of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA; AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS; Spanish AIDS Plan) reviewed the advances in current understanding of the pathophysiology of HIV, the safety and efficacy findings from clinical trials, and the results from cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals or presented at scientific meetings over the last years. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the source of the data: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not recommend ART was established in each of these situations.
ART consisting of at least three drugs is currently the initial treatment of choice for chronic HIV infection. These regimens should include 2 NRTI + 1 NNRTI or 2 NRTI + 1 PI. Initiation of ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4+ lymphocyte counts per L and plasma viral load, as follows: 1) Therapy should be started in patients with CD4+ counts of < 200 cells/microL; 2) Therapy should be started in most patients with CD4+ counts of 200-350 cells/microL, although it can be delayed when CD4+ count persists at around 350 cells/microL and viral load is low; and 3) Initiation of therapy can be delayed in patients with CD4+ counts of > 350 cells/microL. The initial objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable viral load. Adherence to therapy plays an essential role in maintaining the antiviral response. Because of the development of cross resistance, therapeutic options are limited when ART fails. Genotype studies are useful in these cases. Toxicity is a limiting factor in the use of ART, although the benefits outweigh the risks. In addition, the criteria for the use of ART are discussed in situations of acute infection, pregnancy, and post-exposure prophylaxis, and in the management of co-infection of HIV with HCV or HBV.
CD4+ lymphocyte count is the most important reference factor for initiating ART in asymptomatic patients. The large number of available drugs, the increased sensitivity of tests to monitor viral load, and the possibility to determine viral resistance is leading to a more individualized approach to therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the adequacy of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART), in terms of its timing and the choice of regimens, according to the Spanish national treatment guidelines [Spanish AIDS Study Group−National Plan for AIDS (GeSIDA-PNS) Guidelines] for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. MethodsA prospective cohort study of HIV-positive ART-naïve subjects attending 27 centres in Spain from 2004 to 2010 was carried out. Regimens were classified as recommended, alternative or nonrecommended according to the guidelines. Delayed start of treatment was defined as starting treatment later than 12 months after the patient had fulfilled the treatment criteria. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed. ResultsA total of 6225 ART-naïve patients were included in the study. Of 4516 patients who started treatment, 91.5% started with a recommended or alternative treatment. The use of a nonrecommended treatment was associated with a CD4 count > 500 cells/μL [odds ratio (OR) 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–3.59], hepatitis B (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.50–3.33), treatment in a hospital with 5 log HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The use of a nonrecommended regimen was significantly associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.03–2.52; P = 0.035] and lack of virological response. Conclusions Compliance with the recommendations of Spanish national guidelines was high with respect to the timing and choice of initial ART. The use of nonrecommended regimens was associated with a lack of virological response and higher mortality.HIV Medicine 02/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12078 · 3.45 Impact Factor
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2006; 22(4):203-204. DOI:10.1007/s12055-006-0002-5
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ABSTRACT: Information regarding liver retransplantation in HIV-infected patients is scant. Data from 14 HIV-infected patients retransplanted between 2002 and 2011 in Spain (6% retransplantation rate) were analyzed and compared with those from 157 matched HIV-negative retransplanted patients. In HIV-infected patients, early (≤30 days) retransplantation was more frequently indicated (57% vs. 29%; p = 0.057), and retransplantation for HCV recurrence was less frequently indicated (7% vs. 37%; p = 0.036). Survival probability after retransplantation in HIV-positive patients was lower than in HIV-negative patients, 42% versus 64% at 3 years, although not significantly (p = 0.160). Among HIV-infected patients, those with undetectable HCV RNA at retransplantation and those with late (>30 days) retransplantation showed better 3-year survival probability (80% and 67%, respectively), similar to that in their respective HIV-negative counterparts (72% and 70%). In HIV-infected and HIV-negative patients, 3-year survival probability in those with positive HCV RNA at retransplantation was 22% versus 65% (p = 0.008); in those with early retransplantation, 3-year survival probability was 25% versus 56% (p = 0.282). HIV infection was controlled with antiretroviral therapy after retransplantation. In conclusion, HIV-infected patients taken as a whole have unsatisfactory survival after liver retransplantation, although patients with undetectable HCV RNA at retransplantation or undergoing late retransplantation show a more favorable outcome.American Journal of Transplantation 06/2012; 12(9):2465-76. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04142.x · 6.19 Impact Factor