Rate of stimulation affects schizophrenia-normal differences on the N1 auditory-evoked potential.
ABSTRACT The present study examined how increasing the rate of steady-state stimulation affects schizophrenia-normal differences on the N1 auditory-evoked potential, an index of auditory integration. Dense-array EEG was recorded while schizophrenia and normal subjects heard 1 kHz tones amplitude modulated at 10, 20, 40, or 80 Hz. Spectral power across frequency and time was calculated. The typically lower N1 amplitude in schizophrenia, observed at the 10 Hz burst rate, increased to nearly equal that of normal individuals at 20 Hz. Unlike normal subjects, schizophrenia subjects' power at N1 failed to increase at the 40 and 80 Hz burst rates. These results suggest steady-state stimuli, up to a point, provide the extra information needed for schizophrenia patients to more efficiently integrate auditory information.
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ABSTRACT: Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography studies indicate among schizophrenia patients (SZ) abnormal, often reduced, entrained steady-state (aSSR) and transient (N100/M100) neural responses to auditory stimuli. We complement this literature by focusing analyses on auditory cortices, assessing a wide range of stimulation frequencies with long driving periods and evaluating relationships between aSSR and M100 reductions in SZ. Seventeen SZ and 17 healthy subjects (H) participated. Stimuli were 1500 msec binaural broadband noise sequences modulated at 5, 20, 40, 80, or 160 Hz. Magnetoencephalography data were collected and co-registered with structural magnetic resonance images. The aSSRs and M100s projected into brain space were analyzed as a function of hemisphere, stimulus density, and time. For aSSR, SZ displayed weaker entrainment bilaterally at low (5-Hz) and high (80-Hz) modulation frequencies. To 40-Hz stimuli, SZ showed weaker entrainment only in right auditory cortex. For M100, while responses for H increased linearly with stimulus density, this effect was weaker or absent in SZ. A principal components analysis of SZ deficits identified low (5-Hz entrainment and M100) and high (40- to 80-Hz entrainment) frequency components. Discriminant analysis indicated that the low-frequency component uniquely differentiated SZ from H. The high-frequency component correlated with negative symptoms among SZ. The SZ auditory cortices were unable to 1) generate healthy levels of theta and high gamma band (80-Hz) entrainment (aSSR), and 2) augment transient responses (M100s) to rapidly presented auditory information (an index of temporal integration). Only the latter was most apparent in left hemisphere and may reflect a prominent neurophysiological deficit in schizophrenia.Biological psychiatry 05/2011; 69(10):989-96. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar disorder with psychosis (BPP) may share neurophysiological abnormalities as measured in auditory paired-stimuli paradigms with electroencephalography (EEG). Such investigations have been limited, however, by quantifying only event-related potential peaks and/or broad frequency bands at limited scalp locations without considering possible mediating factors (e.g., baseline differences). Results from 64-sensor EEG collected in 180 age- and gender-matched participants reveal (i) accentuated prestimulus gamma oscillations and (ii) reduced P2 amplitudes and theta/alpha oscillations to S1 among participants with both SZ and BPP. Conversely, (iii) N1s in those with SZ to S1 were reduced compared to healthy volunteers and those with BPP, whereas (iv) beta range oscillations 200-300 ms following S2 were accentuated in those with BPP but not those with SZ. Results reveal a pattern of both unique and shared neurophysiological phenotypes occurring within major psychotic diagnoses.Psychophysiology 12/2011; 49(4):522-30. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have deviations in auditory perception perhaps attributable to altered neural oscillatory response properties in thalamo-cortical and/or local cortico-cortical circuits. Previous EEG studies of auditory steady-state responses (aSSRs; a measure of sustained neuronal entrainment to repetitive stimulation) in SZ have indicated attenuated gamma range (≈40 Hz) neural entrainment. Stimuli in most such studies have been relatively brief (500-1000 ms) trains of 1 ms clicks or amplitude modulated pure tones (1000 Hz) with short, fixed interstimulus intervals (200-1000 ms). The current study used extended (1500 ms), more aurally dense broadband stimuli (500-4000 Hz noise; previously demonstrated to elicit larger aSSRs) with longer, variable interstimulus intervals (2700-3300 ms). Dense array EEG (256 sensor) was collected while 17 SZ and 16 healthy subjects passively listed to stimuli modulated at 15 different frequencies spanning beta and gamma ranges (16-44 Hz in 2 Hz steps). Results indicate that SZ have augmented aSSRs that were most extreme in the gamma range. Results also constructively replicate previous findings of attenuated low frequency auditory evoked responses (2-8 Hz) in SZ. These findings (i) highlight differential characteristics of low versus high frequency and induced versus entrained oscillatory auditory responses in both SZ and healthy stimulus processing, (ii) provide support for an NMDA-receptor hypofunction-based pharmacological model of SZ, and (iii) report a novel pattern of aSSR abnormalities suggesting that gamma band neural entrainment deviations among SZ may be more complex than previously supposed, including possibly being substantially influenced by physical stimulus properties.Schizophrenia Research 04/2012; 138(1):1-7. · 4.43 Impact Factor