Maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Ohio State University, College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus 43210-1228, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 12/2004; 351(25):2581-9. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040405
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The proportion of women who attempt vaginal delivery after prior cesarean delivery has decreased largely because of concern about safety. The absolute and relative risks associated with a trial of labor in women with a history of cesarean delivery, as compared with elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor, are uncertain.
We conducted a prospective four-year observational study of all women with a singleton gestation and a prior cesarean delivery at 19 academic medical centers. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared between women who underwent a trial of labor and women who had an elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor.
Vaginal delivery was attempted by 17,898 women, and 15,801 women underwent elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor. Symptomatic uterine rupture occurred in 124 women who underwent a trial of labor (0.7 percent). Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy occurred in no infants whose mothers underwent elective repeated cesarean delivery and in 12 infants born at term whose mothers underwent a trial of labor (P<0.001). Seven of these cases of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy followed uterine rupture (absolute risk, 0.46 per 1000 women at term undergoing a trial of labor), including two neonatal deaths. The rate of endometritis was higher in women undergoing a trial of labor than in women undergoing repeated elective cesarean delivery (2.9 percent vs. 1.8 percent), as was the rate of blood transfusion (1.7 percent vs. 1.0 percent). The frequency of hysterectomy and of maternal death did not differ significantly between groups (0.2 percent vs. 0.3 percent, and 0.02 percent vs. 0.04 percent, respectively).
A trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery is associated with a greater perinatal risk than is elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor, although absolute risks are low. This information is relevant for counseling women about their choices after a cesarean section.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Uterine rupture is a potentially catastrophic complication of vaginal birth after caesarean section. We describe the sixth case of posterior uterine rupture, with intact lower segment scar, and the first neonatal survival after expulsion into the abdominal cavity with posterior rupture. Case Presentation. A multiparous woman underwent prostaglandin induction of labour for postmaturity, after one previous caesarean section. Emergency caesarean section for bradycardia revealed a complete posterior uterine rupture, with fetal and placental expulsion. Upon delivery, the baby required inflation breaths only. The patient required a subtotal hysterectomy but returned home on day 5 postnatally with her healthy baby. Discussion. Vaginal birth after caesarean section constitutes a trial of labour, and the obstetrician must be reactive to labour events. Posterior uterine rupture is extremely rare and may occur without conventional signs. Good maternal and fetal outcome is possible with a prompt, coordinated team response.
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