The relative risks of a low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco product compared with smoking cigarettes: estimates of a panel of experts.
ABSTRACT A nine-membered panel of experts was asked to determine expert opinions of mortality risks associated with use of low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (LN-SLT) marketed for oral use. A modified Delphi approach was employed. For total mortality, the estimated median relative risks for individual users of LN-SLT were 9% and 5% of the risk associated with smoking for those ages 35 to 49 and > or =50 years, respectively. Median mortality risks relative to smoking were estimated to be 2% to 3% for lung cancer, 10% for heart disease, and 15% to 30% for oral cancer. Although individual estimates often varied between 0% and 50%, most panel members were confident or very confident of their estimates by the last round of consultation. In comparison with smoking, experts perceive at least a 90% reduction in the relative risk of LN-SLT use. The risks of using LN-SLT products therefore should not be portrayed as comparable with those of smoking cigarettes as has been the practice of some governmental and public health authorities in the past. Importantly, the overall public health impact of LN-SLT will reflect use patterns, its marketing, and governmental regulation of tobacco products.
SourceAvailable from: Charles R. TaylorJournal of Public Policy & Marketing 11/2008; 27(2):187-196. DOI:10.1509/jppm.27.2.187 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cigarette use is highly prevalent in psychiatric populations. Studies suggest that smokeless tobacco use is not significantly associated with past-year psychiatric morbidity, with evidence that tobacco use differ among sexes. The relationships between current tobacco use and past-year serious psychological distress, major depressive episode and anxiety disorder were therefore examined. Sex differences in the aforementioned relationship were also examined. Methods: A total of 133,221 adults from four successive independent samples of the 2005–2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were included. Prevalence odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for demographic factors, survey year, pregnancy (women only), past-year medical morbidity, past-year psychiatric comorbidity, and past-year substance use disorders. Results: No associations were demonstrated among smokeless tobacco users. Statistically significant sex differences were found for current tobacco use and serious psychological distress (p < 0.001). Both male and female smokers were significantly more likely to have serious psychological distress and anxiety disorder compared to never users, while only female smokers were more likely to have major depressive episode. The strongest associations were found for anxiety disorder among all adults as well as both sexes. Conclusions: The null associations for both sexes for smokeless tobacco may support a reduced risk profile. Female cigarette smokers may be more vulnerable to subclinical distress and depression than males. Studies using other nationally representative samples are needed to confirm these data.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 01/2013; 48(8):1261-1271. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization warned today that countries will need to be much more aggressive in their attempts to stamp out smoking if they are to counter the tobacco industry's marketing techniques (WHO, 2008).Contemporary drug problems 03/2013; 40(1):3-19. DOI:10.1177/009145091304000102