Identification of an extremely thermostable enzyme with dual sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferase activities from an acidothermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7
ABSTRACT L-rhamnose is an essential component of the cell wall and plays roles in mediating virulence and adhesion to host tissues in many microorganisms. Glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA, EC 126.96.36.199) catalyzes the first reaction of the four-step pathway of L-rhamnose biosynthesis, producing dTDP-D-glucose from dTTP and glucose-1-phosphate. Three RmlA homologues of varying size have been identified in the genome of a thermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7. In this study, we report the heterologous expression of the largest homologue (a 401 residue-long ST0452 protein) and characterization of its thermostable activity. RmlA enzymatic activity of this protein was detected from 65 to 100 degrees C, with a half-life of 60 min at 95 degrees C and 180 min at 80 degrees C. Analysis of a deletion mutant lacking the 170-residue C-terminal domain indicated that this region has an important role in the thermostability and activity of the protein. Analyses of substrate specificity indicated that the enzymatic activity of the full-length protein is capable of utilizing alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate but not alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate. However, the protein is capable of utilizing all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates and UTP. Thus, the ST0452 protein is an enzyme containing both glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activities. This is the first report of a thermostable enzyme with dual sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferase activities.
- SourceAvailable from: Motohiro ShizumaAdvances in Applied Biotechnology, 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-820-5
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ABSTRACT: We reported previously that chicken HIRA, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional co-repressors Hir1p and Hir2p, possesses seven WD dipeptide motifs and an LXXLL motif in its N-terminal and C-terminal halves, respectively, required for transcription regulations. Here, by using the gene targeting technique, we generated the homozygous HIRA-deficient DT40 mutant DeltaHIRA. The HIRA deficiency caused slightly delayed cell growth and affected the opposite transcriptions of cell cycle-related genes, i.e. repressions for P18, CDC25B, and BCL-2, activations for P19 and cyclin A, and histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. These altered expressions were completely revived by the artificial stable expression of hemagglutinin-tagged HIRA in DeltaHIRA. The ability to rescue the delayed growth rate was preferentially aided by the N-terminal half instead of the C-terminal half. We cloned the chicken P18 genomic DNA, and we established that its promoter was located surrounding the sequence GCGGGCGC at positions -1157 to -1150. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that the N-terminal half interacted directly or indirectly with the putative promoter region of the p18 gene, resulting in up-regulation of the gene. These results indicated that the N-terminal half of HIRA should contribute positively to the growth rate via up-regulation of a set of cell cycle-related genes, whereas the C-terminal half down-regulated another set of them without exhibiting any effect on the cell growth.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2005; 280(37):32090-100. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M501426200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In an effort to explore the contribution of the sugar constituents of pharmaceutically relevant glycosylated natural products, chemists have developed glycosylation methods for the generation of 'glycorandomized' libraries. Each member of these libraries is uniquely differentiated by an attached carbohydrate. Recently, two complementary glycorandomization strategies have emerged: chemoenzymatic glycorandomization, a biocatalytic approach dependent upon the substrate promiscuity of enzymes to activate and attach sugars to natural products, and neoglycorandomization, an efficient one-step chemical sugar ligation reaction that does not require prior sugar protection or activation. These strategies are likely to have a significant impact on fundamental glycoscience and drug discovery.Current Opinion in Biotechnology 01/2006; 16(6):622-30. DOI:10.1016/j.copbio.2005.10.002 · 8.04 Impact Factor